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Considering the shortcomings of current methods for real-time resolution of two-aircraft flight conflicts, a geometric optimal conflict resolution and recovery method based on the velocity obstacle method for two aircraft and a cooperative conflict resolution method for multiple aircraft are proposed. The conflict type was determined according to the relative position and velocity of the aircraft, and a corresponding conflict mitigation strategy was selected. A resolution manoeuvre and a recovery manoeuvre were performed. On the basis of a two-aircraft conflict resolution model, a multi-aircraft cooperative conflict resolution game was constructed to identify an optimal solution for maximising group welfare. The solution and recovery method is simple and effective, and no new flight conflicts are introduced during track recovery. For multi-aircraft conflict resolution, an equilibrium point that maximises the welfare function of the group was identified, and thus, an optimal strategy for multi-aircraft conflict resolution was obtained.
A hybrid fluorescent pigment composed of fluorescent yellow X-10GFF (FY-10G) and palygorskite (PLG) was prepared by semi-dry grinding. The effects of the physically adsorbed water content and grinding time on the environmental stability of FY-10G/PLG hybrid fluorescent pigments in terms of acid, ethanol and ultraviolet irradiation are discussed in detail. The incorporated FY-10 G molecules are mainly trapped on the external surface and the groove of PLG. Due to the host–guest interaction between PAL and FY-10G, the emission spectrum of the FY-10G/PLG hybrids shifts to a greater wavelength compared with that of FY-10G, but the physically adsorbed water content and grinding time have no effect on the position of the emission spectrum except for its intensity. A larger, physically adsorbed water content and appropriate grinding time may effectively prevent the aggregation and breakage of the bundles of PLG and facilitate FY-10 G molecules to enter into the groove of PAL. This increases the environmental stability of the as-prepared hybrid pigments.
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors and psychological stress of health-care workers (HCWs) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a nonfrontline clinical department.
Data of 2 source patients and all HCWs with infection risk were obtained in a department in Wuhan from January to February 2020. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate psychological stress of COVID-19 on HCWs.
The overall infection rate was 4.8% in HCWs. Ten of 25 HCWs who contacted with 2 source patients were diagnosed with confirmed COVID-19 (8/10) and suspected COVID-19 (2/10). Other 2 HCWs were transmitted by other patients or colleagues. Close care behaviors included physical examination (6/12), life nursing (4/12), ward rounds (4/12), endoscopic examination (2/12). Contacts fluctuated from 1 to 24 times and each contact was short (8.1 min ± 5.6 min). HCWs wore surgical masks (11/12), gloves (7/12), and isolation clothing (3/12) when providing medical care. Most HCWs experienced a mild course with 2 asymptomatic infections, taking 9.8 d and 20.9 d to obtain viral shedding and clinical cure, respectively. Psychological stress included worry (58.3%), anxiety (83.3%), depression (58.3%), and insomnia (58.3%).
Close contact with COVID-19 patients and insufficient protection were key risk factors. Precaution measures and psychological support on COVID-19 is urgently required for HCWs.
Family coaggregation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia have been presented in previous studies. The shared genetic and environmental factors among psychiatric disorders remain elusive.
This nationwide population-based study examined familial coaggregation of major psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of individuals with ASD. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 26 667 individuals with ASD and 67 998 FDRs of individuals with ASD. The cohort was matched in 1:4 ratio to 271 992 controls. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ADHD, ASD, BD, MDD and schizophrenia were assessed among FDRs of individuals with ASD and ASD with intellectual disability (ASD-ID).
FDRs of individuals with ASD have higher RRs of major psychiatric disorders compared with controls: ASD 17.46 (CI 15.50–19.67), ADHD 3.94 (CI 3.72–4.17), schizophrenia 3.05 (CI 2.74–3.40), BD 2.22 (CI 1.98–2.48) and MDD 1.88 (CI 1.76–2.00). Higher RRs of schizophrenia (4.47, CI 3.95–5.06) and ASD (18.54, CI 16.18–21.23) were observed in FDRs of individuals with both ASD-ID, compared with ASD only.
The risk for major psychiatric disorders was consistently elevated across all types of FDRs of individuals with ASD. FDRs of individuals with ASD-ID are at further higher risk for ASD and schizophrenia. Our results provide leads for future investigation of shared etiologic pathways of ASD, ID and major psychiatric disorders and highlight the importance of mental health care delivered to at-risk families for early diagnoses and interventions.
In order to maintain the no-slip condition and the divergence-free property simultaneously, an iterative scheme of immersed boundary method in the finite element framework is presented. In this method, the Characteristic-based Split scheme is employed to solve the momentum equations and the formulation for the pressure and the extra body force is derived according to the no-slip condition. The extra body force is divided into two divisions, one is in relation to the pressure and the other is irrelevant. Two corresponding independent iterations are set to solve the two sections. The novelty of this method lies in that the correction of the velocity increment is included in the calculation of the extra body force which is relevant to the pressure and the update of the force is incorporated into the iteration of the pressure. Hence, the divergence-free properties and no-slip conditions are ensured concurrently. In addition, the current method is validated with well-known benchmarks.
A 6-week growth trial was conducted to evaluate the influences of dietary valine (Val) levels on growth, protein utilisation, immunity, antioxidant status and gut micromorphology of juvenile hybrid groupers. Seven isoenergetic, isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain graded Val levels (1·21, 1·32, 1·45, 1·58, 1·69, 1·82 and 1·94 %, DM basis). Each experimental diet was hand-fed to triplicate groups of twelve hybrid grouper juveniles. Results showed that weight gain percentage (WG%), protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, and feed efficiency were increased as dietary Val level increased, reaching a peak value at 1·58 % dietary Val. The quadratic regression analysis of WG% against dietary Val levels indicated that the optimum dietary Val requirement for hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 %. Gut micromorphology and expression of growth hormone in pituitary, insulin-like growth factor 1, target of rapamycin and S6 kinase 1 in liver were significantly affected by dietary Val levels. In serum, fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher superoxide dismutase, catalase, lysozyme activities and IgM concentrations than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Fish fed 1·58 % dietary Val had higher expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 in head kidney than fish fed other dietary Val levels. Generally, the optimum dietary Val requirement for maximal growth of hybrid groupers was estimated to be 1·56 % of DM, corresponding to 3·16 % of dietary protein, and dietary Val levels affected growth, protein utilisation, immunity and antioxidant status in hybrid groupers.
Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common psychiatric complication facing stroke survivors and has been associated with increased distress, physical disability, poor rehabilitation, and suicidal ideation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PSD remain unknown, and no objective laboratory-based test is available to aid PSD diagnosis or monitor progression.
Here, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic approach was performed to identify differentially expressed proteins in plasma samples obtained from PSD, stroke, and healthy control subjects.
The significantly differentiated proteins were primarily involved in lipid metabolism and immunoregulation. Six proteins associated with these processes – apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV), apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II), C-reactive protein (CRP), gelsolin, haptoglobin, and leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) – were selected for Western blotting validation. ApoA-IV expression was significantly upregulated in PSD as compared to stroke subjects. ApoC-II, LRG, and CRP expression were significantly downregulated in both PSD and HC subjects relative to stroke subjects. Gelsolin and haptoglobin expression were significantly dysregulated across all three groups with the following expression profiles: gelsolin, healthy control > PSD > stroke subjects; haptoglobin, stroke > PSD > healthy control.
Early perturbation of lipid metabolism and immunoregulation may be involved in the pathophysiology of PSD. The combination of increased gelsolin levels accompanied by decreased haptoglobin levels shows promise as a plasma-based diagnostic biomarker panel for detecting increased PSD risk in post-stroke patients.
A nanoparticle-based drug delivery system is first established by mesoporous silica encapsulating amino acid–intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH) to construct nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS. The amino acids including phenylalanine (Phe) and histidine (His) with aromatic groups are intercalated into LDH as the cores Phe-LDH and His-LDH. These nanocomposites AA-LDH@MS display multispaces of the interlayer spaces of LDH and porous channels of mesoporous silica to load drugs. Moreover, amino acid molecules provide the interaction sites to improve effectively loading amounts of drugs. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is used as the cargo molecules to observe the delivery in vitro. The results indicate that the maximum loading amounts of drugs are up to 392 mg/g at 60 °C for 12 h in the nanocomposite Phe-LDH@MS. All the nanocomposites exhibit the sustained release of 5-FU at pH 4 and pH 7.4. The Korsmeyer–Peppas model is used to fit the kinetic plot of the drug release in vitro, which concludes that 5-FU release from AA-LDH@MS belongs to Fickian diffusion.
A bimetallic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs)-templated strategy was developed to fabricate mesoporous CdxZn1−xS polyhedrons with improved photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity, and the formation mechanism of these mesoporous polyhedrons was discussed in detail. Incorporating Cd atoms, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface areas of mesoporous CdxZn1−xS polyhedrons were significantly increased (271 m2/g), providing more exposed active sites compared with ZnS. In addition, suitable conduction band potential (< −0.55 eV) of the mesoporous CdxZn1−xS polyhedrons was also beneficial for the photocatalysis. Impressively, by the co-effects of mesoporous structure and modified conduction band, the mesoporous CdxZn1−xS polyhedrons exhibited better photocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution than most reported photocatalysts without noble metals. The maximum hydrogen evolution rate of the CSZ3 reached 4.10 mmol/(h g) under visible-light irradiation and without any cocatalyst condition. This facile strategy for the construction of mesoporous CdxZn1−xS polyhedrons provided a deep insight to fabricate other metal sulfides for a variety of photochemical applications.
This paper presents a new approach to synthesize multi-loop mechanisms with three translational displacement parameters based on virtual-loop theory and Assur groups. The approach used kinematic links as a generalized link group added one-by-one to the output link, which further extends the unified link groups in the plane and space. Firstly, the concept of infinitesimal displacement parameters is introduced to describe the displacement parameters. The dependence on the change in the degree of freedom (DOF) and displacement parameters of the output link after adding a 0-DOF generalized link group is established. Then, the link groups with three displacement parameters are synthesized, and the intersection operation rules are given. The single-loop mechanism is synthesized under two circumstances. The 1-, 2-, and 3-DOF dual-loop mechanisms are obtained by adding corresponding generalized link groups. Finally, the multi-loop mechanisms are obtained by adding corresponding generalized link groups. Some novel mechanisms are synthesized to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that RagD is a key signalling factor that regulates amino acid (AA) mediated-casein synthesis and cell proliferation in cow mammary epithelial cells (CMECs). The expression of RagD was analysed at different times during pregnancy and lactation in bovine mammary tissue from dairy cows. We showed that expression of RagD at lactation period was higher (P < 0·05) than that at pregnancy period. When CMECs were treated with methionine (Met) or lysine (Lys), expression of RagD, β-casein (CSN2), mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were increased. Further, when CMECs were treated to overexpress RagD, expression of CSN2, mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation were up-regulated. Furthermore, the increase in expression of CSN2, mTOR and p-mTOR, and cell proliferation in response to Met or Lys supply was inhibited by inhibiting RagD, and those effects were reversed in the overexpression model. When CMECs were treated with RagD overexpression together with mTOR inhibition or conversely with RagD inhibition together with mTOR overexpression, results showed that the increase in expression of CSN2 and cell proliferation in response to RagD overexpression was prevented by inhibiting mTOR, and those effects were reversed by overexpressing mTOR. The interaction of RagD with subunit proteins of mTORC1 was analysed, and the result showed that RagD interacted with Raptor. CMECs were treated with Raptor inhibition, and the result showed that the increase in expression of mTOR and p-mTOR in response to RagD overexpression was inhibited by inhibiting Raptor.
In conclusion, our study showed that RagD is an important activation factor of mTORC1 in CMECs, activating AA-mediated casein synthesis and cell proliferation, potentially acting via Raptor.
Universal salt iodisation (USI) has been successfully implemented in China for more than 15 years. Recent evidence suggests that the definition of ‘adequate iodine’ (100–199 µg/l) be revised to ‘sufficient iodine’ (100–299 µg/l) based on the median urinary iodine concentration (MUI) in school-age children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in populations after long-term salt iodisation and examine whether the definition of adequate iodine can be broadened to sufficient iodine based on the thyroid function in four population groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in six provinces in the northern, central and southern regions of China. Four population groups consisting of 657 children, 755 adults, 347 pregnant women and 348 lactating women were recruited. Three spot urinary samples were collected over a 10-d period and blood samples were collected on the 1st day. In the study, among the adults, pregnant women and lactating women, the prevalence rates of elevated thyroglobulin antibody and thyroid microsomal antibody levels were 12·4, 8·5 and 7·8 %, and 12·1, 9·1 and 9·1 %, respectively. Abnormally high thyroid dysfunction prevalence was not observed after more than 15 years of USI in China because the thyroid dysfunction rates were all <5 %. The recommended range should be cautiously broadened from adequate iodine to sufficient iodine according to the MUI of school-age children considering the high levels of hormones and antibodies in the other populations. Adults, particularly pregnant women positive for thyroid antibodies, should be closely monitored.
In this paper, a response model of an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) with a pod-like propulsion device is established. To improve the robustness of motion control in heavy sea states, an integrated nonlinear feedback course-keeping controller is proposed. First, to establish a response model of a USV with pod-like propulsion, model parameters are obtained by the method of system identification, then an integrated nonlinear feedback control strategy is proposed. The essence of this method is to make the original error signal pass through a nonlinear function, and then the output of this function is used to replace the original error signal. Simulation results show that under ordinary sea states, nonlinear feedback can save up to 34.5% of energy used compared with standard feedback methods; under heavy sea states, this can rise to 40.8%. A set of field experiments were carried out with a USV with pod-like propulsion. Results show that under heavy sea states, the test USV can maintain the target course well, which proves the correctness of the model and the robustness of the proposed method.
The grain-size distribution (GSD) of sediments provides information on sediment provenance, transport processes, and the sedimentary environment. Although a wide range of statistical parameters have been applied to summarize GSDs, most are directed at only parts of the distribution, which limits the amount of environmental information that can be retrieved. Endmember modeling provides a flexible method for unmixing GSDs; however, the calculation of the exact number of endmembers and geologically meaningful endmember spectra remain unresolved using existing modeling methods. Here we present the methodology hierarchical clustering endmember modeling analysis (CEMMA) for unmixing the GSDs of sediments. Within the CEMMA framework, the number of endmembers can be inferred from agglomeration coefficients, and the grain-size spectra of endmembers are defined on the basis of the average distance between the samples in the clusters. After objectively defining grain-size endmembers, we use a least squares algorithm to calculate the fractions of each GSD endmember that contributes to individual samples. To test the CEMMA method, we use a grain-size data set from a sediment core from Wulungu Lake in the Junggar Basin in China, and find that application of the CEMMA methodology yields geologically and mathematically meaningful results. We conclude that CEMMA is a rapid and flexible approach for analyzing the GSDs of sediments.
The discovery of the ancient city of Loulan in Xinjiang, China, at the beginning of the 20th century was of great significance for understanding the evolution of culture and civilization in Inner Asia. However, due to the lack of systematic chronological studies, the history of this ancient city remains unclear, particularly the date of its construction and abandonment. Here, we present the results of the first systematic radiocarbon (14C) dating carried out on artifacts from ancient Loulan. Our results show that human activity began as early as 350 cal BC, flourished during the interval from the 1st to 4th centuries AD, and completely disappeared around 600 AD. Most of the buildings in the city were constructed during the Eastern Han Dynasty rather than in Wei/Jin Dynasty, as previously indicated by excavated documents and letters (Hedin 1898; Xiao 2006). The development and flourishing of Loulan coincided with the interval of high ice accumulation and meltwater supply from surrounding mountains. The city began to decline and was finally abandoned following an abrupt decrease in ice accumulation and meltwater supply (Yao et al. 1996; Lauterbach et al. 2014), suggesting that natural climate change was the major factor responsible for the abandonment of Loulan.
We introduce a multiple interval Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto spectral collocation method for the initial value problems of the nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODES). This method is easy to implement and possesses the high order accuracy. In addition, it is very stable and suitable for long time calculations. We also obtain the hp-version bound on the numerical error of the multiple interval collocation method under H1-norm. Numerical experiments confirm the theoretical expectations.
In order to achieve high accuracy of autonomous navigation for Mars probes, an integrated navigation method using X-ray pulsar measurement and optical data of viewing Martian moons is proposed. For single X-ray pulsar measurement on board a Mars probe, navigation accuracy is low due to its poor observability. On the other hand, Phobos and Deimos, two natural moons of Mars, are important optical navigation information sources available for Mars missions. However, the Martian moons ephemeris bias and the differences between barycentre and centre of brightness of Martian moons will result in low navigation accuracy. The method of integrated navigation using X-ray pulsar measurement and optical data of viewing Martian moons can overcome the defect and achieve accurate navigation. Two sequential orbit determination algorithms, Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), are compared. The simulation results show this method can obtain high autonomous navigation accuracy during the phase of a probe orbiting Mars.
The 1 nm tin oxides–tin (SnOx–Sn) compound films were thermally evaporated onto the chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene films for the improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas sensitivity, and the effects of the fabrication temperature and oxygen (O2) flux on the properties of the SnOx–Sn/graphene hybrid sensors including their composition, morphology, and microstructure as well as NO2 sensitivity were investigated. The composition of the SnOx–Sn compound films exhibited strong dependence on the fabrication temperature and O2 flux which could be ascribed to the hybrid effect of the desorption of the oxygen functional groups on the graphene and oxidation of the graphene and Sn. Such combining effects also demonstrated tremendous influence on the SnOx–Sn film morphology, in which the enhanced desorption of the oxygen functional groups on the graphene together with the oxidation of Sn with increasing fabrication temperature would facilitate the formation of large grain-sized and discontinuous films while the increasing O2 flux showed the opposite effects. Meanwhile, the crystallization of the SnOx–Sn compound films was promoted and deteriorated with the increasing temperature and O2 flux, respectively. The SnOx–Sn film morphology played vital role in NO2 gas sensitivity at room temperature, and the mechanism responsible for that was also discussed.