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To characterize opportunities to postprescriptively modify antibiotic prescriptions initiated for treatment of suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing homes.
Cross-sectional cohort study.
Data from the health records of residents treated for UTI between 2013 and 2014 in 5 Wisconsin nursing homes were abstracted using a structured approach. Explicit definitions were used to identify whether the prescribed antibiotic could have been stopped, shortened, or changed to a nonfluoroquinolone alternative. Antibiotic treatments appropriately modified by study nursing home providers in real time were not considered modifiable. Identification of >1 potential modification opportunity (eg, stop and shorten) per antibiotic treatment event was permitted.
In total, 356 eligible antibiotic treatment courses among 249 unique residents were identified. Only 59 antibiotic courses prescribed for treatment of suspected UTI (16.6%) were not amenable to any modification. Discontinuation of treatment due to lack of signs or symptoms of infection was the most frequently identified potential modification opportunity (66.2%). Although less common, substantial numbers of antibiotic treatment courses were potentially amenable to shortening (34%) or agent change (19%) modifications. If applied in concert at 72 hours after antibiotic initiation, stop and shorten modifications could eradicate up to 1,326 avoidable antibiotic days, and change modifications could remove a 32 remaining avoidable fluoroquinolone days.
Substantial opportunity exists to enhance the quality of antibiotic prescribing for treatment of suspected UTI in nursing homes through postprescriptive review interventions. Additional studies examining how to best design and implement postprescriptive review interventions in nursing homes are needed.
Antibiotic overuse and misuse is a common problem in nursing homes. Antibiotic time-out (ATO) interventions have led to improvements in antibiotic uses in hospitals, but their impact in nursing homes remain understudied.
To evaluate the impact of a stewardship intervention, promoting use of ATOs on the frequency and types of antibiotic change events (ACEs) in nursing homes.
Controlled before-and-after intervention study.
Nursing homes in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania.
Data on antibiotic prescriptions in 11 nursing homes were collected for 25 months. We categorized ACEs as (1) early discontinuation, (2) class modification, or (3) administration modification. Class modification ACEs were further classified based on whether the change narrowed, expanded, or had no effect on bacterial spectrum coverage. Analyses were performed using a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach.
Of 2,647 antibiotic events initiated in study nursing homes, 376 (14.2%) were associated with an ACE. The overall proportion of ACEs did not significantly differ between intervention and control nursing homes. Early discontinuation ACEs increased in intervention nursing homes (DiD, 2.5%; P = .01), primarily affecting residents initiated on broad-spectrum antibiotics (DiD, 2.9%; P < .01). Class modification ACEs decreased in intervention nursing homes but remained unchanged in control nursing homes.
The impact of an ATO intervention in study nursing homes was mixed with increases in early discontinuation ACEs offset by reductions in class modification ACEs. More research on the potential value of ATO interventions in nursing homes is warranted.
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