We study effects of relic long-lived strongly interacting massive particles (X particles) on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The X particle is assumed to have existed during the BBN epoch, but decayed long before detected. The interaction strength between an X and a nucleon is assumed to be similar to that between nucleons. Rates of nuclear reactions and beta decay of X-nuclei are calculated, and the BBN in the presence of neutral charged X0 particles is calculated taking account of captures of X0 by nuclei. As a result, the X0 particles form bound states with normal nuclei during a relatively early epoch of BBN leading to the production of heavy elements. Constraints on the abundance of X0 are derived from observations of primordial light element abundances. Particle models which predict long-lived colored particles with lifetimes longer than ~200 s are rejected. This scenario prefers the production of 9Be and 10B. There might, therefore, remain a signature of the X particle on primordial abundances of those elements. Possible signatures left on light element abundances expected in four different models are summarized.