To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
English learners face challenges that are compounded by the fact that they enter schools at every grade level and at various times during the academic year with varying levels of language and literacy proficiency in both their native language and English. This chapter describes four randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) including long-term follow-ups designed to evaluate the efficacy of an English and Spanish supplemental intervention for bilingual (Spanish/English) first graders with reading difficulties. It presents an overview of the English and then Spanish interventions. This is followed by a summary of four studies, which were implemented in successive years in Houston, Austin, and Brownsville. Students were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison conditions. At the end of first grade, all four experimental studies reported improved outcomes for intervention students on phonological awareness, word-reading fluency, reading comprehension, and spelling, and these findings were maintained through fourth grade for treatment students.