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In this review, we introduce our recent applications of deep learning to solar and space weather data. We have successfully applied novel deep learning methods to the following applications: (1) generation of solar farside/backside magnetograms and global field extrapolation based on them, (2) generation of solar UV/EUV images from other UV/EUV images and magnetograms, (3) denoising solar magnetograms using supervised learning, (4) generation of UV/EUV images and magnetograms from Galileo sunspot drawings, (5) improvement of global IRI TEC maps using IGS TEC ones, (6) one-day forecasting of global TEC maps through image translation, (7) generation of high-resolution magnetograms from Ca II K images, (8) super-resolution of solar magnetograms, (9) flare classification by CNN and visual explanation by attribution methods, and (10) forecasting GOES solar X-ray profiles. We present major results and discuss them. We also present future plans for integrated space weather models based on deep learning.
To date, there have been few studies on dietary supplement (DS) use in Korean children and adolescents, using nationally representative data. This study aimed to investigate the current status of DS use and its related factors, among Korean children and adolescents from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data.
A cross-sectional study.
Data from the KNHANES 2015–2017. Participants completed 24-h dietary recall interviews, including DS products that the subjects consumed.
The study population was 4380 children and adolescents aged 1–18 years.
Approximately 2013 % of children and adolescents were using DS; the highest use was among children aged 1–3 years old, and the lowest use was among adolescents aged 16–18 years. The most frequently used DS was prebiotics/probiotics, followed by multivitamin/mineral supplements. Factors that were associated with DS use were lower birth weight in children aged <4 years; younger age, higher household income, regular breakfast intake and lower BMI in children aged 4–9 years; and regular breakfast intake and use of nutrition facts label in adolescents aged 10–18 years. Feeding patterns in infancy and having chronic diseases were not associated with DS use.
We report that over 20 % of children and adolescents use DS. Nutritional education for parents and children about proper DS consumption is needed.
Complement factor H (CFH) plays a key role in regulating the cascade of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Dysregulation of CFH may be involved in the pathophysiology of various inflammation-mediated diseases including neuropsychiatric illnesses. This study aimed to investigate this relationship by examining determining CFH levels in elderly individuals with and without depression.
A total of 152 elderly individuals (major depressive disorder (MDD) group, n = 76; comparison sample, n = 76) were selected from the Ansan Geriatric study. The plasma level of CFH was measured. MDD was diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview as per DSM-IV criteria. The severity of depression was evaluated with the geriatric depression scale (GDS). Mean CFH levels were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. After adjusting for possible confounding factors including age, sex, marital status, education, alcohol use, hemoglobin levels, and the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-KC), a multiple regression analysis was conducted. The GDS score and plasma level of CFH were analyzed using Spearman's correlation.
Plasma CFH level was significantly higher in individuals with MDD than in the comparison sample (289.51 ± 21.16 vs. 339.67 ± 66.23, p < 0.001). In a regression model adjusted for possible confounders, CFH was significantly associated with geriatric depression (p < 0.001). CFH levels were not significantly related to GDS scores in the depressed group.
This study revealed an association between high plasma levels of CFH and geriatric depression, thereby suggesting the alternative pathway of the complement system contributing to the development of geriatric depression.
Diet may play an important role in breast cancer recurrence or survival, and therefore assessment of long-term diet among breast cancer survivors is important in breast cancer survivorship research. Given that the diet of breast cancer survivors may differ from that of the general population, the use of a FFQ specific to this group may be needed. The objective of this study was to develop a FFQ for breast cancer survivors, the most commonly used tool to measure long-term dietary patterns in nutritional epidemiological studies. We collected information on the foods and amounts of foods consumed using 3-d dietary records from a total of 192 women who had been diagnosed with stage I–III breast cancers and had undergone breast cancer surgery at least 6 months before the baseline study. A total of 1254 foods and dishes consumed were re-grouped by the similarity of the main ingredients and/or serving units, and several dishes commonly consumed among the Korean population were added. After we performed contribution analyses and variability analyses to detect between-person variation for selected nutrients, we listed a total of 123 foods and dishes for the FFQ specific to breast cancer survivors. Our breast cancer survivor-specific FFQ can be used to estimate long-term dietary intake and to examine its association with breast cancer prognosis in epidemiological studies of breast cancer in Korea.
Background: The influences of demographics, culture, language, and environmental changes on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores are considerable.
Methods: Using a sample of 7452 healthy, community-dwelling elderly Koreans, aged 55 to 94 years, who participated in the four ongoing geriatric cohorts in Korea, we investigated demographic influences on MMSE scores and derived normative data for this population. Geropsychiatrists strictly excluded subjects with cognitive disorders according to the protocol of the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet (CERAD-K) Clinical Assessment Battery (CERAD-K-C).
Results: Education (standardized β = 0.463), age (standardized β = −0.303), and gender (standardized β = −0.057) had significant effects on MMSE scores (p < 0.001). The score of MMSE increase 0.379 point per 1-year education, decrease 0.188 per 1-year older, and decrease 0.491 in women compared to men. Education explained 30.4% of the scores’ total variance, which was much larger than the variances explained by age (8.4%) or gender (0.3%). Accordingly, we present normative data for the MMSE stratified by education (0, 1–3, 4–6, 7–9, 10–12, and ≥ 13 years), age (60–69, 70–79, and 80–89 years), and gender.
Conclusions: We provide contemporary education-, age-, and gender-stratified norms for the MMSE, derived from a large, community-dwelling elderly Korean population sample, which could be useful in evaluating individual MMSE scores.
This study aimed to investigate whether aquaporin 3 (Aqp3) mRNAs are expressed in immature oocytes and altered during in vitro maturation process. Five- to 6-week-old female ICR mice were primed by gonadotropin for 24 and 48 h. Immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming were also matured in vitro for 17 to 18 h. In vivo matured oocytes were obtained after 48 h priming followed by hCG injection. Total RNAs were extracted from 80 to 150 oocytes in each experimental group, and the levels of Aqp3 mRNA were quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The experiments were repeated twice using different oocytes. The Aqp3 mRNA was expressed in immature oocytes, as well as in in vitro and in vivo matured oocytes. The expression level was higher in immature oocytes obtained 48 h after priming (17.2 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) than those with no priming (5.7 ± 0.8) or obtained 24 h after priming (2.5 ± 0.8). The expression of Aqp3 mRNA decreased after in vitro maturation (1.2 ± 0.5), which was similar to in vivo matured oocytes (1.0 ± 0.0). Our work demonstrated that Aqp3 mRNA expression increased during the development of immature oocyte but decreased after completion of in vitro maturation. The results indicate that AQP3 is certainly needed for the acquisition of immature oocytes’ full growing potential within antral follicles.
Tungsten-tellurite glass thin films were fabricated by radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering method at various processing parameters such as substrate temperatures, Ar/O2 processing gas flow ratio, processing pressure, and rf power from a 70TeO2-30WO3 target fabricated by solid–state sintering method. The effects of processing parameters on the growth rate, the surface morphologies, the crystallinity, and refractive indices of thin films were investigated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, and UV spectrometer. Amorphous glass thin films with a surface roughness of 4∼6 nm were obtained only at room temperature and crystalline phase were observed in all as-deposited thin films prepared at above the room temperature. The deposition rate strongly depends on the processing parameters. It increases as the rf power increases and the processing pressure decreases. Especially, it changes remarkably as varying the Ar/O2 gas flow ratio from 40sccm/0sccm to 0sccm/40sccm. When the films were formed in pure Ar atmosphere it shows a deposition rate of ∼0.2 μm /h, whereas ∼1.5 μm/h when the films was formed in pure O2 atmosphere.
We have proposed nitrous oxide (N2O) plasma pre-treatment in order to reduce the oxide charge densities as well as to increase the breakdown field of silicon dioxide film for flexible display. Our experimental results show that the proposed treatment improved both the flat-band voltage from –3V to –1.8V and the breakdown voltage of gate oxide from 7MV/cm to 9.5MV/cm, respectively. The proposed treatment also improved poly-Si TFT characteristics such as low sub-threshold swing of 0.43V/dec.
We propose a short channel gate overlapped lightly doped drain (GOLDD) poly-Si TFT employing 45° tilt implant for source and drain (S/D) regions without any additional ion doping or mask. Oblique-incident ELA activation is performed to activate both n+ S/D and n- LDD regions as well as cure junction defects. The proposed poly-Si TFT can suppress the anomalous leakage current, and exhibit the better reliability against the hot-carrier stress.
Semispherical self assemblies of colloids have been fabricated on a substrate using inkjet printing with an ink of submicron-sized monodisperse silica particles. Colloidal silica has been prepared by Stöber process. The shape and monodispersity of the synthesized colloidal particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser light scattering particle analyzer. Simple test patterns on various substrates (silicon wafer, Cu foil, and Mylar film) were printed with commercial HP printer. It was found that the uniformity and spatial extent of the self-assembled colloidal silica within a dot were significantly influenced by the contact angle between ink and substrates. Ink droplets printed on the hydrophobic Mylar film maintain a higher contact angle as compared to the hydrophilic substrates such as Si wafer. Slower evaporation and high capillary stress exerted on the ink droplet allow hemispherical colloidal aggregates with an ordered internal structure on Mylar film.
An ultra-low temperature (< 200°C) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) film is fabricated for the plastic substrate application using inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (ICP-CVD) and excimer laser annealing. The precursor active layer is deposited using the SiH4/He mixture at 150°C (substrate). The deposited silicon film consists of crystalline component as well as hydrogenated amorphous component. The hydrogen content in the precursor layer is less than 5 at%. The grain size of the precursor active silicon film is about 200nm and it is increased up to 500nm after excimer laser irradiation.
The YSTAR program is a general sky survey looking for variability. The main equipments are three 0.5-m telescopes. These telescopes have fast F/2 optics covering nearly 3.5 square degree field onto a 2K CCD. They also have very fast slew capability, which exceeds 10 degrees per second. These two factors make them most suitable for rapid target acquisition and wide-field surveys of various kinds. Our primary objective is to identify and monitor variable stars down to 18th R-magnitude, and our observing mode allows the same data set to be also useful in identifying asteroids. Our first telescope has just begun regular automated operation, and the second telescope will be installed in South Africa within this year to provide coverage of the southern sky.
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