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To systematically review the literature with the primary aim of identifying behavioural interventions to improve vitamin D stores in children from at-risk ethnic groups.
Review based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017080932. Health Behaviour Model and Behaviour Change Wheel framework constructs used to underpin evaluation of interventions. Methodological quality evaluated using Cochrane Risk of Bias, Cochrane ROBINS-I and NHLBI tools.
Databases Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL with secondary search of Google Scholar. No country limits set. Papers between January 1990 and February 2018, published in English included. Anticipating study heterogeneity, outcome measures not pre-specified and identified from individual full papers. Updated literature search November 2020.
Patient or population including pregnant women, newborns and children aged under 18 years, from Asian or African ethnic groups.
Of 10 690 articles screened, 298 underwent full-text review, with 24 ultimately included for data extraction. All identified studies conducted a vitamin D pharmacological supplementation intervention, with two also incorporating a behavioural intervention strategy. No study explicitly defined a primary aim of evaluating a behavioural intervention, undertaken to study its effect on vitamin D supplement uptake.
There is a need to address the paucity of data in ethnic at-risk children on how behavioural interventions ideally developed and co-produced with the community under study, affect and help improve vitamin D uptake, within the antenatal and pregnancy phase as well as during childhood.
The objective of this study was to prospectively validate the “Brief Developmental Assessment”, which is a new early recognition tool for neurodevelopmental abnormalities in children with heart disease that was developed for use by cardiac teams.
This was a prospective validation study among a representative sample of 960 pre-school children with heart disease from three United Kingdom tertiary cardiac centres who were analysed grouped into five separate age bands.
The “Brief Developmental Assessment” was successfully validated in the older four age bands, but not in the youngest representing infants under the age of 4 months, as pre-set validation thresholds were met – lower 95% confidence limit for the correlation coefficient above 0.75 – in terms of agreement of scores between two raters and with an external measure the “Mullen Scales of Early Learning”. On the basis of American Association of Pediatrics Guidelines, which state that the sensitivity and specificity of a developmental screening tool should fall between 70 and 80%, “Brief Developmental Assessment” outcome of Red meets this threshold for detection of Mullen scores >2 standard deviations below the mean.
The “Brief Developmental Assessment” may be used to improve the quality of assessment of children with heart disease. This will require a training package for users and a guide to action for abnormal results. Further research is needed to determine how best to deploy the “Brief Developmental Assessment” at different time points in children with heart disease and to determine the management strategy in infants younger than 4 months old.
Neurodevelopmental abnormalities are common in children with CHD and are the highest-priority concerns for parents and professionals following cardiac surgery in childhood. There is no additional routine monitoring of development for children with CHD in the United Kingdom; hence, neurodevelopmental concerns may be detected late, precluding early referral and intervention.
An early recognition tool – the “Brief Developmental Assessment” – was developed using quality improvement methodology involving several iterations and rounds of pilot testing. Our requirements were for a tool covering important developmental domains and practicable for use within inpatient and outpatient settings by paediatric cardiac health professionals who are non-developmental specialists, without specialised equipment and which involved direct observation, as well as parental report.
Items were included in the tool based on existing developmental measures, covering the domains of gross and fine motor skills, daily living skills, communication, socialisation, and general understanding. Items were developed for five age bands – 0–16 weeks, 17–34 weeks, 35–60 weeks, 15 months–2.9 years, and 3–4.9 years – and the final versions included a traffic light scoring system for identifying children with possible delay in any or all domains. Preliminary testing indicated excellent inter-rater reliability, an ability to detect children with a diagnosis known to be associated with developmental delay, and largely acceptable internal reliability.
We report the evolution and preliminary testing of an early recognition tool for assessing the development of children with heart disease; this was encouraging and sufficiently good to support further validation in a larger study.
Suboptimal nutrition among children remains a problem among South Asian (SA) families. Appropriate complementary feeding (CF) practices can greatly reduce this risk. Thus, we undertook a systematic review of studies assessing CF (timing, dietary diversity, meal frequency and influencing factors) in children aged <2 years in India.
Searches between January 2000 and June 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, OVID Maternity & Infant Care, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, BanglaJOL, POPLINE and WHO Global Health Library. Eligibility criteria: primary research on CF practices in SA children aged 0–2 years and/or their families. Search terms: ‘children’, ‘feeding’ and ‘Asians’ and derivatives. Two researchers undertook study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal (EPPI-Centre Weight of Evidence).
From 45 712 abstracts screened, sixty-four cross-sectional, seven cohort, one qualitative and one case–control studies were included. Despite adopting the WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding guidelines, suboptimal CF practices were found in all studies. In twenty-nine of fifty-nine studies, CF was introduced between 6 and 9 months, with eight studies finding minimum dietary diversity was achieved in 6–33 %, and ten of seventeen studies noting minimum meal frequency in only 25–50 % of the study populations. Influencing factors included cultural influences, poor knowledge on appropriate CF practices and parental educational status.
This is the first systematic review to evaluate CF practices in SA in India. Campaigns to change health and nutrition behaviour and revision of nationwide child health nutrition programmes are needed to meet the substantial unmet needs of these children.
Suboptimal nutrition among children remains a problem among South Asian (SA) families. Appropriate complementary feeding (CF) practices can greatly reduce this risk. Thus, we undertook a systematic review of studies assessing CF (timing, dietary diversity, meal frequency and influencing factors) in children aged <2 years in Pakistan.
Searches between January 2000 and June 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health, Web of Science, OVID Maternity & Infant Care, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, BanglaJOL, POPLINE and WHO Global Health Library. Eligibility criteria: primary research on CF practices in SA children aged 0–2 years and/or their families. Search terms: ‘children’, ‘feeding’ and ‘Asians’ with their derivatives. Two researchers undertook study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal (EPPI-Centre Weight of Evidence).
From 45 712 results, seventeen studies were included. Despite adopting the WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding guidelines, suboptimal CF was found in all studies. Nine of fifteen studies assessing timing recorded CF introduced between 6 and 9 months. Five of nine observed dietary diversity across four of seven food groups; and two of four, minimum meal frequency in over 50 % of participants. Influencing factors included lack of CF knowledge, low maternal education, socio-economic status and cultural beliefs.
This is the first systematic review to evaluate CF practices in Pakistan. Campaigns to change health and nutrition behaviour are needed to meet the substantial unmet needs of these children.
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