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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a group of risk factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary habits are among the most important risk factors for MetS. The current study aimed at assessing the effect of dietary habits on the risk of MetS in a 10-year follow-up study in central Iran.
Participants aged 20–74 years without any history of MetS, who were originally recruited for Yazd Healthy Heart Project (YHHP) during 2005–2006, were revisited during 2015–2016. At phase I of YHHP, demographic data, anthropometric measurements, five components of MetS, biochemical tests and dietary habits were evaluated; and the same data were collected in phase II.
A total of 1092 participants were eligible to be included in the present study. After follow-up, the 10-year cumulative incidence of MetS was 56·1 %. After adjustment for potential confounders, increased risk of MetS (hazard ratio; 95 % CI) was found in those who did not try to control their body weight (1·57; 1·06, 2·35), did not usually eat salad (1·91; 1·22, 3·00) and added salt to their food (1·57, 1·06, 2·33). These associations were stronger in men than in the total population after subgroup analysis, but were not present in women.
Dietary habits affect the risk of MetS in the Iranian population. Lifestyle interventions are needed to improve dietary habits to reduce the risk of MetS. Future studies are highly recommended to confirm our results in other populations.
To assess the validity of a 161-item quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) that was developed to evaluate dietary risk factors for a colorectal adenoma case–control study.
A cross-sectional validation study of the QFFQ against 4 d food diary using Pearson correlation coefficients, cross-classification, weighted κ statistics and Bland–Altman plotting.
Two hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil.
Ninety-seven healthy Japanese-Brazilian adults (40–75 years) were recruited. One participant was excluded from the analysis due to unusual energy intake report.
Mean daily nutrient intakes from the QFFQ were higher than from the food diary. The mean Pearson correlation coefficient for nutrient intakes between the QFFQ and the average of the 4 d food diary was 0·43, and increased to 0·45 after correcting correlations for attenuation due to residual day-to-day variation in the food diary measurements. Adjustment for total energy and further adjustment for age and gender decreased the correlation; however, 77 % of observations remained in the same or adjacent quartiles with a mean weighted κ of 0·22. Bland–Altman plots on loge-transformed data showed no linear trend between the differences and means for energy, fat, protein, total folate and vitamin C. Compared with the food diary, the QFFQ showed consistently reasonable performance for dietary fibre, total folate, retinol, riboflavin and vitamin C.
This investigation supports the relative validity of the QFFQ as a method for assessing long-term dietary intake. The instrument will be a useful tool in the analysis of diet–adenoma associations in the case–control study.
To assess the validity of a 148-item quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) that was developed for the Barbados National Cancer Study (BNCS) to determine dietary intake over 12 months and examine the dietary risk factors.
A cross-sectional validation study of the QFFQ against 4 d food diaries. Spearman’s rank correlations (ρ), intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and weighted κ were computed as measures of concordance, adjusting for daily variations in the food diaries. Cross-classification tables and Bland–Altman plots were created for further assessment.
BNCS is a case–control study of environmental risk factors for breast and prostate cancer in a predominantly African-origin population in Barbados.
Fifty-four individuals (21 years and older) were recruited among controls in the BNCS who were frequency-matched on sex and age group to breast and prostate cancer cases.
Similar mean daily energy intake was derived from the food diary (8201 kJ (1960 kcal)) and QFFQ (7774 kJ (1858 kcal)). Rho for energy and macronutrients ranged from 0·66 (energy) to 0·17 (dietary fibre). The percentage of energy from carbohydrates and protein showed the highest and lowest ICC among macronutrients (0·63 and 0·27, respectively). The highest weighted κ was observed for energy (0·45). When the nutrient intake was divided into quartiles, approximately 34 % of the observations were in the same quartile.
This investigation supports the validity of the QFFQ as a method for assessing long-term dietary intake except for dietary fibre, folate, vitamins A, E and B12. The instrument will be a useful tool in the analysis of diet–cancer associations in the BNCS.