To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
John Rawls’s conception of public reason precludes the enforcement of rules derived from metaphysically controversial doctrines, which seems to exclude adoption of Islamic legal doctrines as legitimate rules of decision. While that is true as a matter of ideal theory, the relationship of public reason to Islamic law in nonideal theory is more complex. Islamic law is directly incorporated in the legal systems of numerous Muslim and non-Muslim jurisdictions throughout the world, or its rules arise incidentally in various cases where Islamic law is not formally part of the legal order. This chapter argues that the idea of public reason can meaningfully guide public reason–minded judges when they are tasked with applying Islamic law in a fashion that vindicates the ideals of public reason. Public reason requires judges to steer a middle course among possible extremes when an issue of Islamic law arises: theological reasoning, extreme deference to historical norms, or principled abstention. Moreover, by adhering to the idea of public reason in these cases, judges can play in important role in strengthening, or bringing about, an overlapping consensus in their respective societies.
Western democracies in recent years have witnessed dramatic (and often highly charged) debates regarding Islamic law, women, and the limits of pluralism in a liberal polity. Perhaps the most relevant of these for the issue of family law pluralism was the “Shari‘a Arbitration controversy” of Ontario, Canada, of 2004–2005. Although Jewish, Christian, and Isma‘ili Muslim (a relatively small sect of Shi‘a Muslims who follow the Agha Khan) residents of Ontario had long made use of private arbitration for the resolution of intracommunal family disputes, when a group of Sunni Muslims announced their intent to establish a mechanism to allow orthodox Muslims to arbitrate their family law disputes in accordance with their understanding of Islamic law, a transatlantic controversy erupted that was resolved only when Ontario took the drastic step of prohibiting the arbitration of all family law disputes in which the arbitrator purported to apply non-Canadian law. Great Britain, too, experienced its own moment of Islamic law anxiety when the Archbishop of Canterbury suggested that British commitments to pluralism might require the English legal system to recognize certain aspects of Islamic law. That controversy was subsequently heightened when it was revealed that British Muslims had already set up judicial councils that engaged in legally binding arbitration of family law disputes pursuant to British law permitting binding arbitration.
Given the general anxiety surrounding Islamic law in Western democracies, the fact that fear of Islamic law should be a substantial stumbling block to increasing legal pluralism in the domain of family law is ironic given the pluralistic nature of Islamic law’s regulation of the family. At the same time, legal recognition of family law pluralism is not without its genuine risks: The rules of Islamic family law, as well as the rules and traditions of other subcommunities within a liberal polity, are not substantively equivalent to the generally applicable rules of civil law. Any system of family law pluralism within a liberal polity, therefore, must establish institutional mechanisms to ensure that legal pluralism does not become a tool to deprive individuals of their rights as citizens.