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This study aimed to compare the expression of genes regulating follicles development, survival and steroid hormones secretion in oocytes and granulosa cells (GCs) and study the correlation between their expression and follicular fluid (FF) levels of progesterone (P4) in pregnant and non-pregnant camels. In total, 138 ovarian pairs from slaughtered camels were used. Gene expression and hormonal assay were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The obtained results revealed that the number of follicles (3–8 mm) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in the FF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, no significant (P > 0.05) difference was noticed in the oestradiol (E2) level. STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in GCs and significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. However, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) mRNA level was significantly lower in GCs and oocytes, and the BMP15 mRNA level was significantly lower in oocytes of pregnant, compared with non-pregnant, camels. P4 level in FF was positively correlated with STAR, PTEN, IGF1 and BCL2 mRNA levels in GCs and negatively correlated with BMP15 mRNA levels in oocytes and FSHR mRNA levels in GCs and oocytes of pregnant camels. It could be concluded that pregnancy-induced variations in oocytes and GC expression of BMP15, IGF1, FSHR, STAR, BCL2, and PTEN genes might be associated with a decrease in the number of follicles and an increase in the FF level of P4.
This study was conducted to monitor the cellular and molecular changes of buffalo cumulus–oocytes complexes (COCs) cultured under high or low oxygen levels. Morphologically good quality COCs (n = 1627) were screened using brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and placed into three groups (BCB+, BCB− and control). All groups of COCs were cultured under low (5%) or high (20%) oxygen tensions. Intracellular and molecular changes including oocyte ultrastructure, lipid contents, mitochondrial activity and transcript abundance of genes regulating different pathways were analyzed in the matured oocyte groups. The results revealed that oxygen tension did not affect cumulus expansion rates, however the BCB+ group had a higher (P ≤ 0.05) expansion rate compared with the BCB− group. BCB− oocytes recorded the lowest meiotic progression rate (P ≤ 0.05) under high oxygen levels that was linked with an increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with the BCB+ oocytes. Ultrastructure examination indicated that BCB+ oocytes had a higher rate of cortical granules migration compared with BCB− under low oxygen tension. In parallel, our results indicated the upregulation of NFE2L2 in groups of oocytes cultured under high oxygen tension that was coupled with reduced mitochondrial activity. In contrast, the expression levels of MAPK14 and CPT2 genes were increased (P ≤ 0.05) in groups of oocytes cultured under low compared with high oxygen tension that was subsequently associated with increased mitochondrial activity. In conclusion, data from the present investigation indicated that low oxygen tension is a favourable condition for maintaining the mitochondrial activity required for nuclear maturation of buffalo oocytes. However, low-quality oocytes (BCB−) responded negatively to high oxygen tension by reducing the expression of gene-regulating metabolic activity (CPT2). This action was an attempt by BCB− oocytes to reduce the increased levels of endogenously produced ROS that was coupled with decreased expression of the gene controlling meiotic progression (MAPK14) in addition to nuclear maturation rate.
Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour in children. It is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis complex caused by mutations in TSC-1 or TSC-2 genes. This tumour typically regresses by unknown mechanisms; however, it may cause inflow or outflow obstruction that necessitates urgent surgery. Here we investigate the clinical features and the genetic analysis of patients with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with large rhabdomyoma tumours. We also investigate the potential role of autophagy and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of this tumour.
All the patients with cardiac rhabdomyoma referred to Aswan Heart Centre from 2010 to 2018 were included in this study. Sanger sequencing was performed for coding exons and the flanking intronic regions of TSC1 and TSC2 genes. Histopathological evaluation, immunohistochemistry, and western blotting were performed with P62, LC3b, caspase3, and caspase7, to evaluate autophagic and apoptotic signaling.
Five patients were included and had the clinical features of tuberous sclerosis complex. Three patients, who were having obstructive tumours, were found to have pathogenic mutations in TSC-2. The expression of two autophagic markers, P62 and LC3b, and two apoptotic markers, caspase3 and caspase7, were increased in the tumour cells compared to normal surrounding myocardial tissue.
All the patients with rhabdomyoma were diagnosed to have tuberous sclerosis complex. The patients who had pathogenic mutations in the TSC-2 gene had a severe disease form necessitating urgent intervention. We also demonstrate the potential role of autophagy and apoptosis as a possible mechanism for tumourigenesis and regression. Future studies will help in designing personalised treatment for cardiac rhabdomyoma.
Primary care is geared to manage patients with mild to moderate presentations of common mental disorders and to refer patients with more severe mental disorders to specialist mental health services. With growing demand for specialty care, the quality of the referral is increasingly important to ensure efficient patient flow across the primary/secondary care interface and appropriate use of secondary services. We report on an initiative in a Qatari mental health clinic to improve the quality of referrals from primary care to specialist mental health services through an educational intervention for family physicians. We highlight the problem, the intervention and the outcome of our initiative, which was the first of its kind in the region. The number of inappropriate referrals fell by 93%, and the number of referrals with inadequate clinical information declined from 15 (January 2019) to 1 (September 2019). Feedback was very positive; respondents reported feeling supported, with better understanding of care pathways, the scope of primary care and mental health services.
The avian alimentary tract has evolved into different histologic structures to accommodate the physical and chemical features of several food types and flight requirements. We compared the esophagus, proventriculus, and gizzard of the domestic fowl, Gallus gallus domesticus (GGD) and kestrels, Falco tinnunculus (FT) using immunohistochemistry and scanning electron microscopy with various stains and lectins [Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) and Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA120)], and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The esophagus of GGD demonstrated thickened epithelium, muscularis mucosae, and inner circular longitudinal tunica muscularis layers; moderate outer longitudinal tunica muscularis layers; and a true crop. In contrast, the esophagus of FT showed a thin epithelium, no muscularis mucosae, moderate inner longitudinal and thick outer circular tunica muscularis layers, and no true crop. In the proventriculus, the nature of the secretion in GGD was neutral, but that of FT was acidic and neutral. In the gizzard, the muscle coat of GGD by α-SMA had no muscularis mucosae, unlike FT, which had muscularis mucosae. In summary, there are many histologic differences between GGD and FT to meet their different physiologic needs, such as feeding.
During the world-wide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, there is an urgent need to rapidly increase the readiness of hospitals. Emergency departments (EDs) are at high risk of facing unusual situations and need to prepare extensively in order to minimize risks to health care providers (HCPs) and patients. In situ simulation is a well-known method used in training to detect system gaps that could threaten safety.
One objective is to identify gaps, test hospital systems, and inform necessary modifications to the standard processes required by patients with COVID-19 presenting at the hospital. The other objective is to improve ED staff confidence in managing such patients, and to increase their skills in basic and advanced airway management and proper personal protective equipment (PPE) techniques.
This is a quasi-experimental study in which 20 unannounced mock codes were carried out in ED resuscitation and isolation rooms. A checklist was designed, validated, and used to evaluate team performances in three areas: donning, basic and advanced airway skills, and doffing. A pre- and post-intervention survey was used to evaluate staff members’ perceived knowledge of ED procedures related to COVID-19 and their airway management skills.
A total of 20 mock codes were conducted in the ED. Overall, 16 issues that posed potential harm to staff or patients were identified and prioritized for immediate resolution. Approximately 57.4% of HCPs felt comfortable dealing with suspected/confirmed, unstable COVID-19 cases after mock codes, compared with 33.3% beforehand (P = .033). Of ED HCPs, 44.4% felt comfortable performing airway procedures for suspected/confirmed COVID-19 cases after mock codes compared with 29.6% beforehand. Performance of different skills was observed to be variable following the 20 mock codes. Skills with improved performance included: request of chest x-ray after intubation (88.0%), intubation done by the most experienced ED physician (84.5%), and correct sequence and procedure of PPE (79.0%).
Mock codes identified significant defects, most of which were easily fixed. They included critical equipment availability, transporting beds that were too large to fit through doors, and location of biohazard bins. Repeated mock codes improved ED staff confidence in dealing with patients, in addition to performance of certain skills. In situ simulation proves to be an effective method for increasing the readiness of the ED to address the COVID-19 pandemic and other infection outbreaks.
With rapid growth and development in recent decades, the State of Qatar has been redefining strategies and policies towards building a world-class healthcare system. Mental health has emerged as a priority area for development. As a result, mental health services in the region are being redefined and expanded, and this was realised with the launching of the ambitious National Mental Health Strategy in 2013. Traditionally, mental healthcare in Qatar had been considered to be the remit of psychiatrists within secondary care. The new strategy supported the transition towards community-based care. It outlined a plan to design and build a comprehensive and integrated mental health system, offering treatment in a range of settings. In this article, we provide an overview of the advent of primary care mental health services in Qatar. We discuss the historical aspects of psychiatric care and development of primary care mental health services in Qatar.
Chronic aflatoxin exposure has been associated with childhood stunting (length-for-age/height-for-age < –2 sd), while data lacks for Bangladesh, a country with substantial burden of childhood stunting. This paper examined the association between aflatoxin exposure and childhood stunting in a slum setting of Dhaka city.
In this MAL-ED aflatoxin birth cohort study, plasma samples were assayed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) by MS at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months of age for 208, 196, 173 and 167 children to assess chronic aflatoxin exposure. Relationship between aflatoxin exposure and anthropometric measures was examined by mixed-effects logistic regression models.
Setting and participants:
The study was conducted in Mirpur, Dhaka, where children were followed from birth to 36 months.
Prevalence of stunting increased from 21 % at 7 months to 49 % at 36 months of age. Mean AFB1-lys concentrations at 7, 15, 24 and 36 months were 1·30 (range 0·09–5·79), 1·52 (range 0·06–6·35), 3·43 (range 0·15–65·60) and 3·70 (range 0·09–126·54) pg/mg albumin, respectively, and the percentage of children with detectable AFB1-lys was 10, 21, 18 and 62 %, respectively. No association was observed between aflatoxin exposure and stunting in multivariable analyses. Factors associated with childhood stunting were age, low birth weight, maternal height, stool myeloperoxidase and number of people sleeping in one room.
A relatively lower exposure to aflatoxin may not influence the linear growth of children. This finding indicates a threshold level of exposure for linear growth deficit and further investigation in other areas where higher concentrations of aflatoxin exposure exist.
Anesthesiologists are likely to face pediatric disaster victims both in the developed world and in developing countries, as children are a significant percentage of the global population. Although many challenges in taking care of children in disasters, especially in resource-poor countries, are like the ones described elsewhere in this book, pediatric disaster preparedness involves some unique considerations. The following provides a brief overview of essential equipment, training, and resuscitation as applicable to the anesthesiologist caring for a child in a disaster.
Port-a-Cath or chemoport provides prolonged central venous access for cancer patients requiring prolonged chemotherapy. Prolonged use of chemoport is associated with many complications. Dislodgement and migration of chemoport catheter is a rare and reportable complication with potentially serious consequences.
The medical charts of 1222 paediatric cancer patients admitted to the Children’s Cancer Center in Lebanon who had chemoports inserted for long-term chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Descriptive analysis of data was conducted.
Chemoport fracture and migration were found in seven cases with an incidence of 0.57%. The duration of chemoport use before the event of dislodgement varied from 2 months to 102 months. Non-functioning chemoport was the most common presentation. Totally, six cases were managed successfully by loop snaring, three cases by paediatric cardiology team, and three cases by interventional radiology team. One case was managed surgically during chemoport removal.
Fracture and migration of chemoport catheter is a rare complication of uncertain aetiology and with potentially serious consequences. Percutaneous retrieval, done by experienced cardiologist or interventional radiologist, is the first choice for management of this complication as it is considered as a safe and effective approach.
We describe the morphological adaptations of the tongue and gastrointestinal tract of the striped sand snake Psammophis sibilans and discuss their functional importance. Using standard histological, histochemical, and scanning electron microscopy techniques, we analyzed 11 adult snakes of both sexes. Our findings showed that the bifurcated non-papillate tongue exhibited chemoreceptive adaptions to squamate foraging behavior. The lingual apex tapered terminally with sensory spines, and the body of the tongue possesses a characteristic central odor–receptor chamber that might serve to trap and retain scent molecules. Furthermore, the intrinsic musculature showed interwoven and well-developed transverse, vertical and longitudinal muscle fibers that control contraction and retraction during probing and flicking. The esophagus displayed highly folded mucosa lined with columnar epithelium with goblet cells. In contrast, the stomach mucosa formed finger-like gastric rugae, encompassing tubular glands with dorsal gastric pits. The intestine is distinct from other vertebrates in lacking the crypts of Lieberkühn in the tunica mucosa and submucosa. The intestine mucosa is mostly arranged in interdigitating villi oriented perpendicular to the luminal surface. We extrapolated subtle variations for both acid and neutral mucopolysaccharides and glycoproteins localization as well as collagen fibers using histochemical analyses. The elaborate histo-morphological and functional adaptation of the tongue and digestive tract plays a pivotal role in foraging and feeding behavior.
1- To study the therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy among opiates dependent patients.2- To study the relation between the therapeutic factors of group therapy and the relapse/sobriety outcome on opiates dependent patients.
The study includes 75 patients in two groups. Group I: 45 opiate dependent patients attending the group sessions of this research. Group II: 30 opiate dependent patients receiving other modes of treatment other than group psychotherapy. Group psychotherapy formed of 15 sessions is conducted for group I. Assessment Tools: Group I and II were subjected to the following: All patients are diagnosed according to the ICD10 discipline, Structured Interview (ICD10), Addiction Severity Index, Rotter Test for locus of control, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Personality Assessment Scale (PAS), group I were subjected to Yalom test for assessing group therapeutic factors.
The outcome of the group I of the study who received 15 sessions of relapse prevention group therapy was more favorable, and relapse rate was lower than group II who received modes of treatment other than psychotherapy.
This work introduces robust multi-dialectal part of speech tagging trained on an annotated data set of Arabic tweets in four major dialect groups: Egyptian, Levantine, Gulf, and Maghrebi. We implement two different sequence tagging approaches. The first uses conditional random fields (CRFs), while the second combines word- and character-based representations in a deep neural network with stacked layers of convolutional and recurrent networks with a CRF output layer. We successfully exploit a variety of features that help generalize our models, such as Brown clusters and stem templates. Also, we develop robust joint models that tag multi-dialectal tweets and outperform uni-dialectal taggers. We achieve a combined accuracy of 92.4% across all dialects, with per dialect results ranging between 90.2% and 95.4%. We obtained the results using a train/dev/test split of 70/10/20 for a data set of 350 tweets per dialect.
This study aimed to: (i) characterize cultured granulosa cells (GCs) from different follicle sizes morphologically and molecularly; and (ii) select a suitable model according to follicular size that maintained GC function during culture. Buffalo ovaries were collected from a slaughterhouse and follicles were classified morphologically into: first group ≤ 4 mm, second group 5–8 mm, third group 9–15 mm and fourth group 16–20 mm diameter. GC pellets were divided into two portions. The first portion served as the control fresh pellet, and the secondwas used for 1 week for GC culture. Total RNA was isolated, and qRT-PCR was performed to test for follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), cytochrome P450 19 (CYP19), luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (CASP3), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and phospholipase A2 group III (PLA2G3) mRNAs. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels in the culture supernatant and in follicular fluids were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Basic DMEM-F12 medium maintained the morphological appearance of cultured GCs. The relative abundance of FSHR, CYP19, and LHCGR mRNAs was 0.001 ≤ P ≤ 0.01 and decreased at the end of culture compared with the fresh pellet. There was a fine balance between expression patterns of the proliferation marker gene (PCNA) and the proapoptotic marker gene (CASP3). AMH mRNA was significantly increased (P < 0.001) in cultured GCs from small follicles, while cultured GCs from other three categories (5–8 mm, 9–15 mm and 16–20 mm) showed a clear reduction (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the relative abundance of PLA2G3 mRNA was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in all cultured GCs. E2 and P4 concentrations were significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in all cultured groups. Primary cultured GCs from small follicles could be a good model for better understanding follicular development in Egyptian buffaloes.