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Academic medical centers (AMCs) rely on engaged and motivated faculty for their success. Significant burnout among clinical and research faculty has resulted in career disengagement and turnover. As such, AMCs must be vested in cultivating faculty engagement and well-being through novel initiatives that support faculty. The Well-Being Education Grants program was established by the Office for Well-Being within the Center for Faculty Development at Massachusetts General Hospital to provide the impetus many faculty needed to dedicate time to their well-being, demonstrating that investments in multi-component interventions around faculty well-being require resources and funding.
This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
What is an axiom? The meaning of the term ‘axiom’ varies between different fields of study. In philosophy it means a statement that is accepted without argument, while in physics the term ‘postulate’ is used and it means a theory that was verified in an experiment, and will be considered as true unless it is disproved by other experiments.
In mathematics the notion of ‘axiom’ is used in two related but distinguishable meanings: ‘logical axioms’ and ‘non-logical axioms’. Logical axioms are certain statements that are always true, and from them all tautologies of the language can be derived. Non-logical axioms are statements that are taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
Increasing rates of habitat loss and human occupation are creating demands for optimum strategies that maximize conservation efforts, despite the lack of detailed data required for implementation. Broad scale biogeographical data may furnish initial guidelines for conservation planning in a hierarchical framework for establishing conservation priorities and helping guide future research programmes. This approach may be critical in regions for which few detailed data on diversity, abundance and distribution are available, such as in the Cerrado biome of central Brazil. We used a macroecological approach, based on the extent of occurrence of 127 species of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Cerrado, to design a regional network of potential areas that represent all species at least once. The final network has a total of 24 regions widely distributed throughout the biome. We also evaluated these regions in terms of their human occupation by adding a cost for each cell based on 23 variables expressing variation in agricultural, demographic and cattle-ranching patterns on the Cerrado. Our analyses showed that conservation efforts should be concentrated in the south and south-east of the biome. This macroecological approach can provide broad guidelines for conservation and define the focus for more local and realistic conservation efforts.
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease due to deficiency in the enzyme that breaks down branched chain amino acids. Lack of the enzyme causes accumulation of these amino acids and, if untreated, causes severe neurological damage. A case study of a 10-day old female infant, born after 40 weeks' gestation with a birthweight of 2740g with MSUD hospitalized in the acute stage with respiratory failure and severe brain oedema is described. As part of the neurological evaluation, auditory nerve brainstem evoked response testing was conducted and revealed bilateral presence of the first wave from the auditory nerve, with no later brainstem waves. Over the course of days when her condition improved following dialysis treatment and a diet to reach balanced levels of branched chain amino acids, the later brainstem waves appeared on one side, and several weeks later they were also observed on the other side. The possible mechanisms of the reversibility of the appearance of brainstem waves in this case are discussed.