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The combination of 3D processing technologies, low power circuits and new materials integration makes it conceivable to build autonomous integrated systems, which would harvest their energy from the environment. In this paper, we focus on mechanical energy harvesting and discuss its scaling prospects toward the use of piezoelectric nanostructures, able to be integrated in a CMOS environment. It is shown that direct scaling of present MEMS-based methodologies would be beneficial for high-frequency applications only. For the range of applications which is presently foreseen, a different approach is needed, based on energy harvesting from direct real-time deformation instead of energy harvesting from vibration modes at or close to resonance. We discuss the prospects of such an approach based on simple scaling rules
We have investigated the impact of a metal gate (TiN) and high-k dielectric (HfO2) on the carrier mobility. We have shown that strong remote Coulomb scattering (RCS) due to charges in the HfO2 layer (either grown by ALD or MOCVD) mostly degrades the mobility at low/medium field. High amount of charges (>1013cm-2) is needed to explain the 30% degradation observed in devices with a thin interface layer. These additional coulombic interactions are effective for bottom oxide up to 2nm. We have developed a RCS model to fully explain the experimental data. The influence of the metal gate is also evidenced. The latter has a significative impact on the Si/SiO2 interface roughness, and may induce some additional coulombic interactions.
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