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Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in elderly people. However, the associated risk factors have not been completely clarified. We examined possible risk factors associated with sleep disturbance in a community-based Japanese cohort study.
1521 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were selected from a consecutive series at a cohort study from 2016 to 2018 in Arao city, where located at south part of Japan. In this survey, the clinical valuables were collected as follows: age, sex, occupational status, education, lifestyle information, medical history, EuroQoL(EQ)-5D (a score of health-related quality of life [QOL]), Barthel index (a score of performance in activities of daily living), a score of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and a score of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Sleep disturbance was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (when the global score was 6 or over, sleep disturbance was determined to be present). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between clinical valuables and sleep disturbance. This research was supported by AMED (Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development) under Grant Number JP18dk0207025h0003 and has been approved by the research ethics committee of Kumamoto University. Informed consent was obtained from all participants and their family members.
Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that Parkinson disease (Odds ratio[OR]=5.59), living alone (OR=1.93), liver disease (OR=1.89), hyperlipidemia (OR=1.36), higher score of GDS (OR=1.14), lower scores of both EQ-5D index (OR=1.11) and Barthel index (OR=1.03) were significantly associated as risk factors with sleep disturbance. Unexpectedly, lower score of MMSE was not a significant risk factor.
These results suggest that several physical illnesses, solitude, depressive symptoms and lower QOL, but not cognitive impairment, might be crucial risk factors associated with sleep disturbance in elderly population.
Patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
To identify predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression in individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to determine whether hyperglycaemic progression rates differ among antipsychotics in regular clinical practice.
We recruited 1166 patients who initially had normal or prediabetic glucose levels for a nationwide, multisite, l-year prospective cohort study to determine predictive factors for hyperglycaemic progression. We also examined whether hyperglycaemic progression varied among patients receiving monotherapy with the six most frequently used antipsychotics.
High baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension significantly predicted hyperglycaemic progression. The six most frequently used antipsychotics did not significantly differ in their associated hyperglycaemic progression rates over the 1-year observation period.
Clinicians should carefully evaluate baseline serum triglycerides and coexisting hypertension and perform strict longitudinal monitoring irrespective of the antipsychotic used.
Declaration of interest
The authors report no financial or other relationship that is relevant to the subject of this article. Relevant financial activities outside the submitted work are as follows. I.K. has received honoraria from Astellas, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Nippon Chemiphar, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; has received research/grant support from AbbVie GK, Asahi Kasei Pharma, Astellas, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chugai Pharmaceutical, Daiichi Sankyo, Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Ono Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin; and is a member of the advisory boards of Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma and Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma. Y.T. has received speaker's honoraria from Dainippon-Sumitomo Pharma, Otsuka, Meiji-Seika Pharma, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Daiichi-Sankyo Company, UCB Japan and Ono Pharmaceutical. K.U. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eisai, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Pfizer, Tanabe Mitsubishi Pharma, Shionogi and Yoshitomiyakuhin. B.Y. has received speaker's honoraria from Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Janssen Pharmaceutical. J. I. has received honoraria from Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceutical, Meiji Seika Pharma, MSD, Novartis Pharma, Otsuka Pharmaceutical and Mochida Pharma.
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