Background: More than 450,000 patients receive outpatient hemodialysis in the United States. Patients on hemodialysis are at high risk of bloodstream infections (BSIs), which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. National prevention efforts targeting hemodialysis facilities have resulted in widespread changes in practice, including modifications to central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance procedures. We analyzed dialysis event surveillance data submitted to the CDC NHSN to describe changes in BSI rates among hemodialysis outpatients from 2014 to 2018. Methods: Outpatient hemodialysis facilities report BSIs (ie, positive blood cultures collected in the outpatient setting or within 1 calendar day after hospital admission) and the number of hemodialysis outpatients treated during the first 2 working days of each month to the NHSN. For each BSI, the suspected source (ie, vascular access, another site, contamination, or uncertain) and vascular access type are indicated: CVC, arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG). Pooled mean rates (per 100 patient months) were calculated for BSIs, access-related BSIs (ARBSIs), and BSIs and ARBSIs were stratified by vascular access type. Annual BSI rate trends were evaluated using a negative binomial regression model, which treated patient months as an offset variable and included access type, year, and an access-year interaction variable. Results: More than 6,000 outpatient hemodialysis facilities reported 134,961 BSIs from 2014 to 2018. Of these BSIs, 102,505 (76%) were categorized as access related. CVCs were present in 63% of BSIs and 70% of ARBSIs. Pooled mean BSI rates decreased 27% from 0.64 to 0.47 per 100 patient months; rates of ARBSIs decreased 27% from 0.49 to 0.36 per 100 patient months. Significant decreases in event rates occurred across vascular access strata (Fig. 1). The reduction in BSI and ARBSI burden was most pronounced among patients with CVCs. BSI rates in patients with CVCs decreased 32% from 2.16 per 100 patient months to 1.46 (annual average decrease, 9.5%), and ARBSI rates in patients with CVCs decreased 32% from 1.83 per 100 patient months to 1.24 (annual average decrease, 9.4%). Conclusions: Substantial reductions in BSI and ARBSI rates among hemodialysis outpatients occurred during this 5-year period, and these reductions appear to be most prominent among CVC and AVF patients. Improvements in infection prevention and control practices, including CVC care, have likely contributed to these reductions. Additional efforts to increase the uptake of known prevention practices and to identify new strategies for prevention might contribute to continued decreases in infections among this highly vulnerable population.