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An iterative external standard method of X-ray diffraction is presented to overcome the difficulties of preferred orientation and peak overlap encountered in quantitative phase analysis. Instead of using only a single line intensity in the traditional external standard technique, all the reflection data are used in the calculation. The accuracy and applicability of this method was tested on a series of two-phase powder mixtures with known composition. The results show markedly good agreement with the actual values. As an example, the analysis was applied to the data collected from an as plated electrodeposited Zn-Fe coating. The determined phase composition of the coating was found to be 88.2 +/− 5.3 wt % δ-phase and 11.8 +/− 0.7 wt % η -phase.
The mechanism of reactive wetting of metal/ceramic was investigated on the basis of a detailed description of the thermodynamics of interfacial reactions. The interfacial reaction of the metal/ceramic system has been treated as the reaction between the surface phase of the metal matrix and that of the substrate. It is concluded that reactive wetting is governed not only by the term accounting for the intensity of interfacial chemical reactions but also by the term accounting for the physicochemical properties of the resulting interface. In some cases, only one of them contributes dominantly to wetting. The criteria for the choice of an alloying element to promote wetting should not only include its reactivity with the substrate but also its ability to favorably modify the metal/substrate interface.
The joining characteristics of oxidized SiC particles with Al–Mg alloy during reaction infiltration processing for fabrication of the composite were studied. From the measurement of weight changes due to the transformation from SiC into SiO2, it became clear that the thickness of SiO2 layer which was formed at the surface of SiC particles increased parabolically with holding time at the given exposing temperatures. The degree of oxidation of the preform made by SiC particles can be controlled by the application of the present oxidation data. The microstructure observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy showed network skeleton via necklike oxidized-joining among the SiC particles and the compressive strength of the perform increased with oxidation temperature. Furthermore, the microstructure of the composite which was fabricated by Al–2 wt% Mg alloy via reaction infiltration processing was examined and the formation of spinel was observed to join the matrix with the particles like a bridge, which is suitable to make the complicate and strong preforms for the near net-shape composites application in electronic packaging.
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