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Patients with remitted psychosis wish to reduce antipsychotic doses yet facing increased risks of relapse. Examining dose-tapering processes may provide insights to re-evaluate the risk-to-benefit balance. We aimed to depict and subgroup tapering trajectories, and explore factors associated with different dose-reduction patterns.
A 2-year open-label randomized prospective comparative trial from August 2017 to September 2022 in Taiwan. Patients with a history of schizophrenia-related psychotic disorders under stable medications and symptoms were eligible, randomizing a proportion to conduct guided dose reduction. We depicted the trajectories of individual patients and named subgroups based on dose-tapering patterns. Predictors of baseline characteristics for designated subgroups were examined by logistic regression analysis; changes in outcomes were compared by paired t-test.
Fifty-one patients undergoing guided dose reduction, 18 (35.3%) reduced 4 steps consecutively (sequential reducers, SR), 14 (27.5%) reduced 1 to 3 steps (modest reducers, MR), 3 (5.9%) re-escalated to previous level (alert reducers, AR), 7 (13.7%) returned to baseline level (baseline returners, BR), 6 (11.7%) relapsed (failed reducers, FR) and 3 (5.9%) withdrew without relapse (early exits, EE). Patients with a history of relapse assumed a conservative dose-tapering pace; only the SR subgroup exhibited significant improvements in functioning and quality of life while failing to identify variables for predicting who would become SR or FR.
Guided dose reduction comprises dynamic processes with differences between individual trajectories. The proposed naming of dose-tapering patterns/subgroups provides a framework depicting patients undergoing dose-tapering. Longer-term observation and more flexible tapering approaches are anticipated to reveal favorable outcomes.
In a mass casualty incident (MCI) exercise, live-actor patients (LAPs) simulated different scenarios in the exercise. This study compared the benefit to LAPs with that to exercise players (EPs) and nonparticipants (NPs).
An MCI exercise was conducted in 2018. Emergency department (ED) nurses were assigned as EPs, LAPs, or NPs and asked to attend a pre-exercise lecture. A pre-exercise survey evaluated all ED nurses’ background, confidence level, and knowledge of MCI management. Knowledge assessment included disaster medicine knowledge (DMK) and on emergency operation plan familiarity (EOPF). The same survey was conducted again after the exercise. A paired t-test was used to analyze the difference before and after the exercise in the 3 groups.
Twenty-nine ED nurses completed both surveys. Confidence improved significantly for both the EP and LAP groups. The DMK of the LAP group improved significantly. EOPF also improved significantly for all 3 groups. A comparison of the improvement levels showed no significant difference between the EP and LAP groups for confidence, DMK, and EOPF.
ED nurses can benefit from participating as LAPs in full-scale MCI exercises. Having ED nurses act as LAPs makes it possible to train more staff in 1 exercise.
Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
We explored long-term employment status and income before and after depression diagnosis among men and women and at different working ages in Taiwan.
Data from 2006 to 2019 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Individuals with newly diagnosed depressive disorder aged 15 to 64 years during the study period were identified. An equal number of individuals without depression were matched for their demographic and clinical characteristics. Employment outcomes included employment status, which was categorized into employed or unemployed, and annual income. Based on the occupation categories and monthly insurance salary recorded in the Registry for Beneficiaries of the NHIRD, a subject was defined as unemployed if he or she differed from the income earner or the occupation category was unemployed. Monthly income was defined as zero for unemployed subjects and proxied as monthly insurance salary for others. Annual income was the sum of monthly income in each observation year.
A total of 420,935 individuals with depressive disorder were included in the study, and an equal number of individuals with not diagnosed depression served as controls. Employment rate and income were lower in the depression group than in the control group before the year of diagnosis, with a difference of 5.7% in employment rate and USD 1,173 in annual income. This gap increased considerably after the year of diagnosis (7.3% in employment rate and USD 1,573 in annual incomes) and further widened in the subsequent years (8.1% in employment rate and USD 2,006 in annual incomes in the 5th following year). The drops in the employment rate and income caused by depression were more evident in men and older age groups than in women and younger age groups, respectively. However, the reduction in employment rate and income in the following years after the diagnosis was more considerable among younger age groups.
The effect of depression on employment status and income was significant during the year of diagnosis and continued afterwards. The effect on employment outcomes varied between genders and across all age groups.
Two thrips, Megalurothrips usitatus (Bagnall) and Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) are major pests of cowpea in South China. To realistically compare the growth, development and reproductive characteristics of these two thrips species, we compared their age-stage, two-sex life tables on cowpea pods under summer and winter natural environmental regimes. The results showed that the total preadult period of M. usitatus was 8.09 days, which was significantly longer than that of F. intonsa (7.06 days), while the adult female longevity of M. usitatus (21.14 days) was significantly shorter than that of F. intonsa (25.77 days). Significant differences were showed in male adult longevity (10.68 days for F. intonsa and 16.95 days for M. usitatus) and the female ratio of offspring (0.67 for F. intonsa and 0.51 for M. usitatus), and the total preadult period of M. usitatus (16.20 days) was significantly longer than that of F. intonsa (13.66 days) in the winter regime. The net reproductive rate (summer: R0 = 85.62, winter: R0 = 105.22), intrinsic rate of increase (summer: r = 0.3020 day−1, winter: r = 0.2115 day−1), finite rate of increase (summer: λ = 1.3526 day−1, winter: λ = 1.2356 day−1) and gross reproduction rate (summer: GRR = 139.34, winter: GRR = 159.88) of F. intonsa were higher than those of M. usitatus (summer: R0 = 82.91, r = 0.2741, λ = 1.3155, GRR = 135.71; winter: R0 = 80.62, r = 0.1672, λ = 1.1820, GRR = 131.26), and the mean generation times (summer: T = 14.73 days, winter: T = 22.01 days) of F. intonsa were significantly shorter than those of M. usitatus (summer: T = 16.11 days, winter: T = 26.25 days). These results may contribute to a better understanding of the bioecology of different thrips species, especially the interspecific competition between two economically important cowpea thrips with the same ecological niche in a changing environment.
Evidence suggests a familial coaggregation of major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Those disorders are further related to suicide and accidental death. However, whether death by suicide may coaggregate with accidental death and major psychiatric disorders within families remains unclear.
To clarify the familial coaggregation of deaths by suicide with accidental death and five major psychiatric disorders.
Using a database linked to the entire Taiwanese population, 68 214 first-degree relatives of individuals who died by suicide between 2003 and 2017 and 272 856 age- and gender-matched controls were assessed for the risks of death by suicide, accidental death and major psychiatric disorders.
A Poisson regression model showed that the first-degree relatives of individuals who died by suicide were more likely to die by suicide (relative risk RR = 4.61, 95% CI 4.02–5.29) or accident (RR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.43–1.84) or to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (RR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.40–1.66), bipolar disorder (RR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.83–2.16), MDD (RR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.89–2.08) or ADHD (RR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.24–1.44).
Our findings identified a familial coaggregation of death by suicide with accidental death, schizophrenia, major affective disorders and ADHD. Further studies would be required to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying this coaggregation.
Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
In this study, a novel, cost-effective miniaturized tag antenna was developed for applications on the human body. To achieve impedance matching with the complex conjugate impedance of the Monza-4 tag chip (7.17–j74.22 Ω at 915 MHz), the proposed structure was configured by coarsely tuning the positions of vias and fine-tuning the small gaps of its coupled patches. For further reducing the profile and dimensions of the antenna, a design technique based on the three-dimensional dipole antenna current distribution was used. The proposed antenna configuration was not only miniaturized but also achieved a long stable reading distance (>5.0 m) and a wide impedance bandwidth of 71 MHz or 7.65% (covering the ultrahigh frequency radio frequency identification ranges in most regions), regardless of the location of the tag on the human body. Experiments were conducted to validate the simulated results, and adequate agreement was found between the simulated results and the measured results.
Large gatherings of people on cruise ships and warships are often at high risk of COVID-19 infections. To assess the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 on warships and cruise ships and to quantify the effectiveness of the containment measures, the transmission coefficient (β), basic reproductive number (R0), and time to deploy containment measures were estimated by the Bayesian Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered model. A meta-analysis was conducted to predict vaccine protection with or without non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). The analysis showed that implementing NPIs during voyages could reduce the transmission coefficients of SARS-CoV-2 by 50%. Two weeks into the voyage of a cruise that begins with 1 infected passenger out of a total of 3,711 passengers, we estimate there would be 45 (95% CI:25-71), 33 (95% CI:20-52), 18 (95% CI:11-26), 9 (95% CI:6-12), 4 (95% CI:3-5), and 2 (95% CI:2-2) final cases under 0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% vaccine protection, respectively, without NPIs. The timeliness of strict NPIs along with implementing strict quarantine and isolation measures is imperative to contain COVID-19 cases in cruise ships. The spread of COVID-19 on ships was predicted to be limited in scenarios corresponding to at least 70% protection from prior vaccination, across all passengers and crew.
A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) developed for radiocarbon and tritium measurements was installed and commissioned at Guangxi Normal University in 2017. After several years of operational and methodological upgrades, its performance has been continuously improved and applied in multidisciplinary fields. Currently, the measurement sensitivity for radiocarbon and tritium is 14C/12C ∼ (3.14 ± 0.05) ×10–15 and 3H/1H ∼ (1.23 ± 0.17)×10–16, respectively, and the measurement accuracy is ∼0.6%, which can meet the measurement requirements in the nuclear, earth, environmental and life science fields. This study presents the performance characteristics of GXNU-AMS and several interesting application studies.
Although ethanol treatment is widely used to activate oocytes, the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Roles of intracellular calcium stores and extracellular calcium in ethanol-induced activation (EIA) of oocytes remain to be verified, and whether calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is involved in EIA is unknown. This study showed that calcium-free ageing (CFA) in vitro significantly decreased intracellular stored calcium (sCa) and CaSR expression, and impaired EIA, spindle/chromosome morphology and developmental potential of mouse oocytes. Although EIA in oocytes with full sCa after ageing with calcium does not require calcium influx, calcium influx is essential for EIA of oocytes with reduced sCa after CFA. Furthermore, the extremely low EIA rate in oocytes with CFA-downregulated CaSR expression and the fact that inhibiting CaSR significantly decreased the EIA of oocytes with a full complement of CaSR suggest that CaSR played a significant role in the EIA of ageing oocytes. In conclusion, CFA impaired EIA and the developmental potential of mouse oocytes by decreasing sCa and downregulating CaSR expression. Because mouse oocytes routinely treated for activation (18 h post hCG) are equipped with a full sCa complement and CaSR, the present results suggest that, while calcium influx is not essential, CaSR is required for the EIA of oocytes.
Negative symptoms are an important symptom dimension in schizophrenia that are often least responsive to antipsychotic medications. We revisit the current practice of identifying ‘primary’ negative symptoms and suggest that its concept would benefit from a further elaboration of their timing of emergence in relation to the dynamic neurobiological changes to enhance their utility in clinical decision-making and research.
In this paper, flexible substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) resonators have been designed and fabricated on polyimide substrates for humidity sensing applications. The proposed SIW resonant cavity allows the resonator to obtain the maximum humidity sensitivity and meet the demand for flexible microwave sensing detection. Meanwhile, the humidity response performance can be further significantly enhanced by introducing nanodiamond (ND) sensing material. Three prototypes of ND-coated SIW sensors with different bending radii are measured to analyze their humidity sensing performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ND-coated SIW sensor with the minimum bending radius can achieve a maximum humidity sensitivity of 1.09 MHz/% relative humidity (RH) in the high RH region (>75.3% RH) and a low humidity hysteresis of 1.8% in the range of 11.3–97.3% RH. This study provides a promising candidate to realize flexible microwave sensors with excellent sensing performance.
Strategic management scholars have shown increasing interest in explaining strategic change from the perspective of cognitive bias. However, most studies focus on individual cognitive bias but pay little attention to group cognitive bias. This study introduces a typical group cognitive bias (group polarization) to explain strategic change decisions made by the board of directors. Following the theory of group polarization, we argue that, when the average prior strategic change experienced in performance decline by board directors is relatively high (or low), the focal strategic change in performance decline will become even higher (or lower). We further contend that the proportion of female directors and board versus CEO power as the contingencies can mitigate this group polarization effect. Our hypotheses were strongly supported by a longitudinal sample of Chinese publicly listed companies during 2008–2018. The study's framework and findings contribute to the contextualization of social psychology research on group polarization in the study of board's strategic decision-making.
Patients with remitted psychosis face a dilemma between the wish to discontinue antipsychotics and the risk of relapse. We test if an operationalized guided-dose-reduction algorithm can help reach a lower effective dose without increased risks of relapse.
A 2-year open-label randomized prospective comparative cohort trial from Aug 2017 to Sep 2022. Patients with a history of schizophrenia-related psychotic disorders under stable medications and symptoms were eligible, randomized 2:1 into guided dose reduction group (GDR) v. maintenance treatment group (MT1), together with a group of naturalistic maintenance controls (MT2). We observed if the relapse rates would be different between 3 groups, to what extent the dose could be reduced, and if GDR patients could have improved functioning and quality of life.
A total of 96 patients, comprised 51, 24, and 21 patients in GDR, MT1, and MT2 groups, respectively. During follow-up, 14 patients (14.6%) relapsed, including 6, 4, and 4 from GDR, MT1, and MT2, statistically no difference between groups. In total, 74.5% of GDR patients could stay well under a lower dose, including 18 patients (35.3%) conducting 4 consecutive dose-tapering and staying well after reducing 58.5% of their baseline dose. The GDR group exhibited improved clinical outcomes and endorsed better quality of life.
GDR is a feasible approach as the majority of patients had a chance to taper antipsychotics to certain extents. Still, 25.5% of GDR patients could not successfully decrease any dose, including 11.8% experienced relapse, a risk comparable to their maintenance counterparts.
The resurgence and outbreaks of mumps occur frequently in many countries worldwide in recent years, even in countries with high vaccination coverage. In this study, a descriptive and spatiotemporal clustering analysis at the township level was conducted to explore the dynamic spatiotemporal aggregation and epidemiological characteristics of mumps in Wuhan. During 2005 and 2019, there were 40 685 cases reported in Wuhan, with an average annual morbidity of 28.11 per 100 000 populations. The morbidity showed a fluctuating tendency, and peaked in 2010 and 2018. Bimodal seasonality was found, with a large peak between May and July, and a mild peak from November to January in the following year. Male students aged 5–9-year-old were the main risk group of mumps infection. Significant global spatial auto-correlation was detected except in 2007, 2009 and 2015. The spatial and temporal scan statistics indicated that the hot-spots mainly located at the western and southern areas of Wuhan with variations almost every year. Our findings could assist the public health authorities to develop and improve targeted health strategies, and allocate health resources rationally.
Research on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure recognizes the importance of the government and examines how firms respond to government CSR regulations. However, little attention is given to how government regulations affect firms’ disclosure strategy in multiple fields of CSR. Based on institutional theory, this study proposes that mandatory CSR disclosure increases the legitimacy management cost for firms, and thus firms disclose more CSR scope to gain legitimacy and less CSR emphasis to reduce costs. Using data from Chinese A-share listed firms in 2008–2018, this study finds that mandatory CSR disclosure is positively related to CSR scope but negatively related to CSR emphasis. In addition, firm visibility strengthens the aforementioned positive and negative relations, whereas market competition weakens the relation between mandatory CSR disclosure and CSR emphasis. This study contributes to the literature on CSR disclosure and studies on organizational responses to the government mandate.
Intertemporal choices involve tradeoffs between outcomes that occur at different times. Most of the research has used pure gains tasks and the discount rates yielding from those tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences. However, real decisions are often more complex and involve mixed outcomes (e.g., sooner-gain and later-loss or sooner-loss and later-gain). No study has used mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoff tasks to explain and predict real-world behaviors and consequences, and studies involving such tasks are also scarce. Considering that tasks involving a combination of gains and losses may yield different discount rates and that existing pure gains tasks do not explain or predict real-world outcomes well, this study conducted two experiments to compare the discount rates of mixed gain-loss intertemporal tradeoffs with those of pure gains or pure losses (Experiment 1) and to examine whether these tasks predicted different real-world behaviors and consequences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 suggests that the discount rate ordering of the four tasks was, from highest to lowest, pure gains, sooner-loss and later-gain, pure losses, and sooner-gain and later-loss. Experiment 2 indicates that the evidence supporting the claim that the discount rates of the four tasks were related to different real-world behaviors and consequences was insufficient.
The study aims to systematically review all articles on the economic evaluation (EE) of coronary stenting, to critically assess the reporting quality, and to summarize the results.
A systematic search was undertaken through seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang data, Vip data and SinoMed.) from inception until March 2021, to identify economic evaluation articles comparing coronary stenting with other therapies, or among different stenting procedures. After screening articles and extracting data independently, we summarized methods, contents, and outcomes of the included articles and appraised their methodological quality using the CHEERS (Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards) checklists. Then, the literature scores were standardized as a proportion of the total score, and stepwise multiple regression was constructed to verify the factors that might influence the quality of literature.
Of the 3,622 publications identified, 59 articles were included in this review. There were 33 cost-effectiveness studies and 26 were cost-utility studies. The quality of the reports varied between studies, with a standardized mean score of 0.76 (0.40-0.98). According to the Cheers checklist, “Introduction” had the lowest overall score (0.53), with many articles deficient in the description of the study’s perspective; “Discussion” had the highest overall score (0.86), with nearly three-quarters of the articles reporting the full content; “Title and abstract”, “Methods”, “Results”, and “Other” scored 0.71, 0.78, 0.74 and 0.66, respectively. According to the results of the stepwise multiple regression model, “Published year”, “National type”, and “Type of economic analysis” research were significantly associated with the quality of literature.
The quality of current research reports on the economics of coronary stenting is generally satisfactory, but there is potential for improvement and high quality reports can provide evidence to support decision making for policy makers.