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Sudden unexpected cardiac deaths in approximately 20% of young athletes are due to acquired or congenital coronary artery abnormalities. Kawasaki disease is the leading cause for acquired coronary artery abnormalities, which can cause late coronary artery sequelae including aneurysms, stenosis, and thrombosis, leading to myocardial ischaemia and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery can develop adequate collateral circulation from the right coronary artery in the newborn period, which remains asymptomatic only to manifest in adulthood with myocardial ischaemia, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the opposite sinus occurs in 0.7% of the young general population aged between 11 and 15 years. If the anomalous coronary artery courses between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, sudden cardiac death may occur during or shortly after vigorous exercise, especially in patients where the anomalous left coronary artery originates from the right sinus of Valsalva. Symptomatic patients with evidence of ischaemia should have surgical correction. No treatment is needed for asymptomatic patients with an anomalous right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. At present, there is no consensus regarding how to manage asymptomatic patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva and interarterial course. Myocardial bridging is commonly observed in cardiac catheterisation and it rarely causes exercise-induced coronary syndrome or cardiac death. In symptomatic patients, refractory or β-blocker treatment and surgical un-bridging may be considered.
Childhood cardiac arrhythmias may have a long-lasting impact on a family and typically require long-term medical follow-up. Whereas some arrhythmias are benign, others can be life threatening and require significant medical care. As with many chronic illnesses, it is important to study the potential psychosocial effects of childhood arrhythmias and how they may impact a child's quality of life. The purpose of this study was to create a quality of life measure specific to childhood arrhythmias and to describe the current psychosocial functioning of this population. A total of 46 families participated in a one-time paper and pencil assessment during their regularly scheduled clinic visits. Results indicated promise for the validity and reliability of this new measure. Children in the current sample also demonstrated a high degree of resiliency. Additional analyses with larger samples will be needed to verify the psychometric properties of this measure. Overall, the high functioning of many of these children despite medical trauma is promising. Future studies should consider using some screening measures to decide which children may be most in need of intervention.
A total of 80 patients, diagnosed by echocardiography as having ventricular septal defect with aortic valvar prolapse, underwent cardiac catheterization and surgery. Echocardiographic and angiographic results were compared with surgical findings. The ventricular septal defects as observed during surgery were found to be doubly committed and subarterial in 49 (61%), muscular outlet in 10 (13%), and perimembranous in 21(26%). The location had been erroneously categorized by echocardiography and angiography in 12 (15%) and in 15 (19%) patients, respectively. Prolapse of the right coronary leaflet of the aortic valve, as documented by echocardiography, was confirmed by angiography in all but two cases. Prolapse of the noncoronary leaflet was detected by both imaging modalities in three patients. Prolapse of the right coronary and noncoronary leaflets was observed at surgery in 49 and three patients, respectively. The mean size of the ventricular septal defect, when measured by echocardiography, was significantly smaller than that found following surgical measurements (3.3±1.3 vs 8.4±3.8 mm, p<0.001). Our study showed that the ventricular septal defect was erroneously classified in the presence of prolapse of the aortic valve in 15% and 19% of our cases by echocardiography and angiography, respectively. The herniated sinus of Valsalva forming the “roof” of the ventricular septal defect probably redirected the jet across the defect to cause the errors in interpretation. Echocardiography, nevertheless, is as reliable as angiography in our hands in the follow-up of patients with ventricular septal defect opening to the outlet of the right ventricle.
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