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With the progress in science and technology, hazardous chemicals are becoming more essential in chemical products, industrial and agricultural production, and daily life. Hazardous chemicals have poisoning, corrosive, explosive, and combusting natures; once on fire, they can trigger a chain of catastrophic incidences, resulting in casualties, property loss, and environmental pollution and posing hazards to life and property. Using the “8–12” explosion of the Ruihai Logistics warehouse in Tianjin Port (Binhai New District, China), the present study analyzes the characteristics of trauma of the casualties in this accident and the emergency medical rescue strategies. The goals were to improve the ability of emergency rescue in such accidents and to save people’s lives and property to the maximum extent.
We report the first experiments on divergent shock-driven Richtmyer–Meshkov instability (RMI) at well-controlled single-mode interfaces. These experiments are performed in a novel divergent shock tube designed by shock dynamics theory. Generally, the perturbation growth can be divided into three successive stages: linear growth, quick reduction in growth rate and instability freeze-out. It is observed that the growth rate at each stage is far lower than its counterpart in planar or convergent geometry due to geometric divergence. We also found that nonlinearity is much weaker than that in planar or convergent RMI, and has a negligible influence on the overall amplitude growth even at late stages when it has become strong. This weak nonlinear effect is because the growth of the third harmonic counteracts its feedback to the fundamental mode. As a consequence, the linear theory of Bell (report no. LA-1321) accounting for geometric divergence and Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) stabilization caused by flow deceleration can reasonably predict the present results from early to late stages. The instability freeze-out at late times is ascribed to the negative growth induced by geometric divergence and RT stabilization, and is also well reproduced by the linear theory.
Animal studies suggest that maternal diet during pregnancy influences susceptibility to obesity in the next generation. One-carbon nutrients involved in epigenetic processes represent a possible underlying mechanism. Unfortunately, there is limited research in humans to support animal findings, and the few studies available have been limited to birth defects and weight outcomes in early infancy. The aim of this project was to examine the associations between maternal diet (diet quality indicators and one-carbon nutrients) during the period surrounding pregnancy and long-term weight outcomes in the offspring.
We examined 2,729 mother-child pairs from the Nurses’ Health Study II and the offspring cohort Growing Up Today Study 2 (GUTS 2). Children, 12–14 years at baseline were 21–23 years at the last follow-up. Overweight was defined for youth less than 18 years of age using sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) cut-offs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force and for those 18 years or older as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Dietary information was collected by a validated 131-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and questions on supplement use. Maternal dietary patterns were calculated from FFQs using three diet quality scores – the alternate Healthy Eating Index (aHEI), Alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals.
In models adjusted for sex, gestational age at delivery and maternal total energy intake, greater maternal adherence to aMED and DASH, but not aHEI, was associated with lower overweight risk in the offspring (RRQ5 vs Q1 = 0.82 [0.70–0.97] for aMED and 0.86 [0.72–1.04] for DASH) (P for trend < 0.05 for both). After additional adjustment for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and socio-demographic characteristic, none of the diet quality scores was significantly associated with child's birth weight or overweight risk during follow-up. Analysis with one-carbon nutrients are ongoing; we hypothesize that children born to mothers with greater intake of one-carbon nutrients have a lower risk of developing overweight compared to children of mothers with lower intake of these nutrients.
Maternal diet quality indices during pregnancy were not associated with child's birth weight or the risk of developing overweight at ages 12 to 23 years. Further research on maternal dietary intake during pregnancy is warranted because pregnancy offers a window of opportunity to promote behavioral change that may program the health of the next generation.
A novel shock tube is designed to investigate the nonlinear feature of convergent Richtmyer–Meshkov instability on a single-mode interface formed by a soap film technique. The shock tube employs a concave–oblique–convex wall profile which first transforms a planar shock into a cylindrical arc, then gradually strengthens the cylindrical shock along the oblique wall, and finally converts it back into a planar one. Therefore, the new facility can realize analysis on compressibility and nonlinearity of convergent Richtmyer–Meshkov instability by eliminating the interface deceleration and reshock. Five sinusoidal
interfaces with different amplitudes and wavelengths are considered. For all cases, the perturbation amplitude experiences a linear growth much longer than that in the planar geometry. A compressible linear model is derived by considering a constant uniform fluid compression, which shows a slight difference to the incompressible theory. However, both the linear models overestimate the perturbation growth from a very early stage due to the presence of strong nonlinearity. The nonlinear model of Wang et al. (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 22, 2015, 082702) is demonstrated to predict well the amplitude growth up to a normalized time of 1.0. The prolongation of the linear increment is mainly ascribed to the counteraction between the promotion by geometric convergence and the suppression by nonlinearity. Growths of the first three harmonics, obtained by a Fourier analysis of the interface contour, provide a first thorough validation of the nonlinear theory.
Breast milk (BM) hormones have been hypothesised as a nutritional link between maternal and infant metabolic health. This study aimed to evaluate hormone concentrations in BM of women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and the relationship between maternal factors, BM hormones and infant growth. We studied ninety-six nulliparous women with (n 48) and without GDM and their exclusively breastfed term singletons. Women with GDM received dietary therapy or insulin injection for euglycaemia during pregnancy. Hormone concentrations in BM, maternal BMI and infant growth were longitudinally evaluated on postnatal days 3, 42 and 90. Mothers with GDM had decreased concentrations of adiponectin (Pcolostrum<0·001; Pmature-milk=0·009) and ghrelin (Pcolostrum=0·011; Pmature-milk<0·001) and increased concentration of insulin in BM (Pcolostrum=0·047; Pmature-milk=0·021). Maternal BMI was positively associated with adiponectin (β=0·06; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·1; P=0·001), leptin (β=0·16; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·2; P<0·001) and insulin concentrations (β=0·06; 95 % CI 0·02, 0·1; P<0·001), and inversely associated with ghrelin concentration in BM (β=–0·08; 95 % CI –0·1, –0·06; P<0·001). Among the four hormones, adiponectin was inversely associated with infant growth in both the GDM (βweight-for-height=–2·49; 95 % CI –3·83, –1·15; P<0·001; βhead-circumference=–0·39; 95 % CI –0·65, –0·13; P=0·003) and healthy groups (βweight-for-height=–1·42; 95 % CI –2·38, –0·46; P=0·003; βhead-circumference=–0·15; 95 % CI –0·27, –0·03; P=0·007). Maternal BMI and GDM are important determinants of BM hormone concentrations. Milk-borne adiponectin is determined by maternal metabolic status and plays an independent down-regulating role in early infant growth.
Local renderings of the two Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata in Malay and Javanese literature have existed since around the ninth and tenth centuries. In the following centuries new versions were created alongside the old ones, and these opened up interesting new directions. They questioned the views of previous versions and laid different accents, in a continuous process of modernization and adaptation, successfully satisfying the curiosity of their audiences for more than a thousand years.Much of this history is still unclear. For a long time, scholarly research made little progress, due to its preoccupation with problems of origin. The present volume, going beyond identifying sources, analyses the socio-literary contexts and ideological foundations of seemingly similar contents and concepts in different periods; it examines the literary functions of borrowing and intertextual referencing, and calls upon the visual arts to illustrate the independent character of the epic tradition in Southeast Asia.
The tin–bismuth eutectic alloy possesses anomalous physicochemical properties that are dependent on temperature. This paper reports the interfacial reaction and growth behavior of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer during the dissolution of solid copper in liquid eutectic tin–bismuth at 673–823 K under the influence of the structural transition of liquid eutectic tin–bismuth. The structural transition markedly affected the dissolution rate constant of solid copper and the growth rate of the IMCs. Correspondingly, the application of the liquid structural transition significantly decreased the activation energy of dissolution and increased the apparent activation energy for IMC growth. Moreover, two major roles of elemental Bi on the formation and growth of the IMCs were suggested.
Two transmission curved crystal spectrometers are designed to measure the hard x-ray emission in the laser fusion experiment of Compton radiography of implosion target on ShenGuang-III laser facility in China. Cylindrically curved
-quartz (10–11) crystals with curvature radii of 150 and 300 mm are used to cover spectral ranges of 10–56 and 17–100 keV, respectively. The distance between the crystal and the x-ray source can be changed over a broad distance from 200 to 1500 mm. The optical design, including the integral reflectivity of the curved crystal, the sensitivity, and the spectral resolution of the spectrometers, is discussed. We also provide mechanic design details and experimental results using a Mo anode x-ray source. High-quality spectra were obtained. We confirmed that the spectral resolution can be improved by increasing the working distance, which is the distance between the recording medium and the Rowland circle.
To examine the association between urinary excretion of isoflavonoids and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a nested case–control study among 1111 T2D pairs identified during 1995–2008 in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and NHSII, who were free of diabetes, CVD and cancer at urine sample collection. Urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein, as well as their metabolites O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), dihydrogenistein (DHGE) and dihydrodaidzein (DHDE) was assayed using liquid chromatography MS. Self-reported T2D incident cases were confirmed using a validated questionnaire. Higher urinary excretion of daidzein and genistein was associated with a lower risk of T2D in the combined cohorts. Comparing extreme tertiles of the urinary markers, the OR of T2D were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·55, 0·93) for daidzein and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·97) for genistein, although the test for linear trend was not significant for genistein (Ptrend=0·03 and 0·15, respectively). DMA, DHDE and DHGE were non-significantly associated with a lower T2D risk. The inverse association of daidzein with T2D risk was stronger among post-menopausal women who did not use hormone replacement therapy (Pinteraction=0·001): the OR was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·97) comparing extreme tertiles among these women. In conclusion, urinary excretion of isoflavones was associated with a lower T2D risk in US women, especially among post-menopausal women who did not use hormone. Further research is warranted to replicate these observations among western populations with similarly low overall isoflavone intake.
Commission 12 of the International Astronomical Union encompasses investigations of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, the quiet solar atmosphere, solar radiation and its variability, and the nature of relatively stable magnetic structures like sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network. The Commission sees participation of over 300 scientists worldwide.
Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) have attracted much interest owing to their unique optical properties. In this paper, a facile process has been successfully developed to synthesize the SiO2/Au hybrid microspheres with a diameter of 200 nm via the galvanic replacement of SiO2/Ag hybrid microspheres and chlorauric acid (HAuCl4) solution. The as-prepared products were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, JEOL-6700F), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, JEOL 3010), respectively. As expected, the as-prepared SiO2/Au hybrid microspheres show strong chemical stability and superior catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP). The SiO2/Au hybrid microspheres would be found widely used in wastewater treatment, catalytic reaction, bacteriostatic and bactericidal applications.
The driving mechanism of solar flares and coronal mass ejections is a topic of ongoing debate, apart from the consensus that magnetic reconnection plays a key role during the impulsive process. While present solar research mostly depends on observations and theoretical models, laboratory experiments based on high-energy density facilities provide the third method for quantitatively comparing astrophysical observations and models with data achieved in experimental settings. In this article, we show laboratory modeling of solar flares and coronal mass ejections by constructing the magnetic reconnection system with two mutually approaching laser-produced plasmas circumfused of self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. Due to the Euler similarity between the laboratory and solar plasma systems, the present experiments demonstrate the morphological reproduction of flares and coronal mass ejections in solar observations in a scaled sense, and confirm the theory and model predictions about the current-sheet-born anomalous plasmoid as the initial stage of coronal mass ejections, and the behavior of moving-away plasmoid stretching the primary reconnected field lines into a secondary current sheet conjoined with two bright ridges identified as solar flares.