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Mammal sex determination depends on whether the X sperm or Y sperm binds to the oocyte during fertilization. If the X sperm joins in oocyte, the offspring will be female, if the Y sperm fertilizes, the offspring will be male. Livestock sex control technology has tremendous value for livestock breeding as it can increase the proportion of female offspring and improve the efficiency of livestock production. This review discusses the detailed differences between mammalian X and Y sperm with respect to their morphology, size, and motility in the reproductive tract and in in vitro conditions, as well as ’omics analysis results. Moreover, research progress in mammalian sex control technology has been summarized.
Vitamin D (VD) plays a vital role in various physiological processes in addition to its classic functions on maintaining the balance of Ca and P metabolism. However, there still are gaps to understand in depth the issues on the precise requirement, metabolic processes and physiological functions of VD in fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of VD on the growth, intestinal health, host immunity and metabolism in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), one important commercial carnivorous fish in aquaculture, through the supplementation of different doses of dietary VD3 (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 μg VD3/kg diet). According to our results, the optimal VD3 level in the feed for turbot growth was estimated to be around 400 μg/kg, whereas VD3 deficiency or overdose in diets induced the intestinal inflammation, lowered the diversity of gut microbiota and impaired the host resistance to bacterial infection in turbot. Moreover, the level of 1α,25(OH)2D3, the active metabolite of VD3, reached a peak value in the turbot serum in the 400 μg group, although the concentrations of Ca and phosphate in the turbot were stable in all groups. Finally, the deficiency of dietary VD3 disturbed the nutritional metabolism in turbot, especially the metabolism of lipids and glucose. In conclusion, this study evaluated the optimal dose of dietary VD3 for turbot and provided the evidence that VD has a significant impact on intestinal health, host immunity and nutritional metabolism in fish, which deepened our understanding on the physiological functions and metabolism of VD3 in fish.
The occurrence of chalkiness has decreased in new hybrid rice cultivars in China. As both chalkiness occurrence and starch granule size are associated with the biosynthesis of starch, we hypothesized that there may be a correlation between chalkiness occurrence and starch granule size, and this may partially explain the decreased chalkiness occurrence in the new hybrid rice cultivars. To test this hypothesis, a field experiment was conducted over eight environments (two years × four sowing dates) with two hybrid rice cultivars: one recently developed with low chalkiness occurrence, Jingliangyou 1468 (JLY1468) and a relatively older cultivar with high chalkiness occurrence, Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ). Results showed that JLY1468 had a higher cumulative distribution of large-diameter (7.51–19.50 μm) starch granules and a lower grain weight of milled rice compared to LYPJ. As a consequence, mean and relative starch granule diameters were 6% and 21% higher in JLY1468 than in LYPJ, respectively. Although both the chalky grain rate and chalkiness degree were negatively correlated with mean and relative starch granule diameter, they were more closely correlated with the relative granule diameter. These results support our hypothesis regarding the relationship between chalkiness occurrence and starch granule size and suggest that the relative starch granule diameter is a relevant parameter in understanding the occurrence of chalkiness in hybrid rice.
Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics improve medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia and extend the duration of therapeutic drug levels but with administration of an increased dose. Real-world mortality data in patients prescribed LAIs are lacking. We conducted a population-based cohort study to estimate and compare the incidence rates of all-cause death and completed suicide in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder exposed to LAIs and oral antipsychotics.
Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder between January 1, 2015 and November 30, 2019 were enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and linked to Death Registry records. Eligible patients were new antipsychotic users. Relative risks of death for each antipsychotic compared with oral paliperidone were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Index, index year, bipolar or major depressive or other mood disorders, mental disorders due to drug use, and baseline hospitalization frequency.
There were 228,791.08 person-years of follow-up (mean 2.48 years). The incidence rates of all-cause death in users of LAI paliperidone administered monthly (PP1M) and every 3 months (PP3M) were 7.40/1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval 5.94–9.11) and 9.93 (5.88–15.79), respectively. The incidences of completed suicide were 2.03/1,000 person-years (1.32–2.99) and 3.10 (1.14–6.88), respectively. No significant associations were observed between PP1M and PP3M compared to oral paliperidone in incidences of all-cause death or for completed suicide.
No increased risk of all-cause death or completed suicide was observed in users of antipsychotic LAIs, including PP1M and PP3M.
High-Mg andesites (HMAs) are crucial for the reconstruction of plate tectonics, continental margin formation and lithospheric evolution. In this study, we present new fossil age, whole-rock geochemical and Sr–Nd isotope data on the newly discovered Dundunshan Group HMAs in the Dundunshan area of the Beishan orogen (central-southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt). The Dundunshan HMA samples are characterized by high MgO (6.47–7.02 wt%) contents and high Mg# values (67.27–68.77), with SiO2 (58.57–62.13 wt%), Al2O3 (14.49–16.07 wt%) and CaO (5.05–6.24 wt%) resembling typical HMAs. The Dundunshan HMA samples are calc-alkaline and strongly enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), with slightly negative Eu anomaly and high-field-strength element (HFSE) depletions. Their (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios (0.7041–0.7057) and ϵNd(t) (3.73–5.59) indicate that the Dundunshan HMAs were mainly formed by the interactions between subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. Fossil evidence and published radiometric age data constrain the formation of the Dundunshan HMAs to early Late Devonian time. Sedimentological features of the Middle Devonian Sangejing Formation and regional tectonic correlation suggest that the Hongliuhe–Niujuanzi–Xichangjing Ocean in the Dundunshan area was likely closed during late Middle Devonian time, and that the Dundunshan HMAs were formed in a post-collision extensional setting.
The incidence of gout has increased rapidly in recent years, and the suspected lack of awareness of gout among general practitioners may lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment.
To assess general practitioners’ management of gout at community health service clinics in the Tongzhou district of Beijing, as well as the factors that contributed to optimal decision making.
A survey based on current guidelines for assessment and management of gout was sent to 245 general practitioners at community health service clinics in the Tongzhou district of Beijing. The questionnaire included personal information of general practitioners and ten items that addressed knowledge of gout. Our questionnaire was self-administered and distributed electronically via WeChat, and data were collected on a platform called ‘Wenjuanwang’. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 19.0 software.
Totally, 216 general practitioners responded to the survey. About three-quarters (71.8%) reported having received Continuing Medical Education (CME) about gout. More than half (54.6%) reported an awareness of treat to target (T2T) for gout. However, the overall rate of good understanding of gout was only 6.5%, a basic knowledge of gout was 55.6%, and understanding about gout diagnosis and treatment was only 11.1%. The general practitioners’ understanding of basic concepts related to gout indicated that CME could improve their understanding (P < 0.05). An analysis of the general practitioners’ rate of comprehension of gout diagnosis and treatment showed that education level, CME, and familiarity with T2T could improve understandings of gout diagnosis and treatment (P < 0.05).
There are serious deficits in understandings about gout among general practitioners in the Tongzhou district of Beijing. Quality CME is needed to improve Chinese general practitioners’ management of gout.
Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the aetiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40–69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) as well as 95 % CI for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8·96 years (interquartile range 8·29–9·53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that the regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0·80 (95 % CI, 0·75, 0·85; P < 0·001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HR for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0·84 (0·73, 0·96), 0·84 (0·77, 0·92) and 0·71 (0·62, 0·80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (Pfor interaction = 0·078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14 % to 84 % through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.
The effect of vitamin D (VD) on the risk of preeclampsia (PE) is uncertain. Few of previous studies focused on the relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk. Therefore, we conducted this 1:1 matched case–control study to explore the association of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk in Chinese pregnant women. A total of 440 pairs of participants were recruited during March 2016 to June 2019. Dietary information was obtained using a seventy-eight-item semi-quantitative FFQ. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95 % CI. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were plotted to evaluate the dose–response relationship of dietary VD intake and serum VD concentrations with PE risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the OR of the highest quartile were 0·45 (95 % CI 0·29, 0·71, Ptrend = 0·001) for VD dietary intake and 0·26 (95 % CI 0·11, 0·60, Ptrend = 0·003) for serum levels after adjusting for confounders. In addition, the RCS analysis suggested a reverse J-shaped relationship between dietary VD intake and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). A similar association was also found between serum concentrations of total 25(OH)D and PE risk (P-nonlinearity = 0·02). In conclusion, this study provides evidence that higher dietary intake and serum levels of VD are associated with the lower risk of PE in Chinese pregnant women.
The aim of the present study was to compare the rate of preterm birth (PTB) and growth from birth to 18 years between twins conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) and twins conceived by spontaneous conception (SC) in mainland China. The retrospective cohort study included 1164 twins resulting from IVF and 25,654 twins conceived spontaneously, of which 494 from IVF and 6338 from SC were opposite-sex twins. PTB and low birth weight (LBW), and growth, including length/height and weight, were compared between the two groups at five stages: infancy (0 year), toddler period (1–2 years), preschool (3–5 years), primary or elementary school (6–11 years), and adolescence (10–18 years). Few statistically significant differences were found for LBW and growth between the two groups after adjusting for PTB and other confounders. Twins born by IVF faced an increased risk of PTB compared with those born by SC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] [3.19, 21.13], p < .001 in all twins and aOR 10.12, 95% CI [2.32, 44.04], p = .002 in opposite-sex twins). Twins born by IVF experienced a similar growth at five stages (0–18 years old) when compared with those born by SC. PTB risk, however, is significantly higher for twins conceived by IVF than those conceived by SC.
This study examined the effect of a cryoprotectant with and without pentoxifylline supplementation on the motility and viability of human testicular sperm, both before and after freezing. Testicular samples were obtained from 68 patients with azoospermia who came to the Andrology Service of West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, for testicular biopsies from December 2019 to April 2020. All patients were assigned randomly to two groups: experimental, whose testicular sperm were added to the cryoprotectant with pentoxifylline, and the control, whose testicular sperm were added to the cryoprotectant without pentoxifylline. Both groups used the same freezing and thawing methods. Testicular sperm motility in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group, both before and after cryopreservation. The recovery rate of sperm motility in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The percentage of samples with motile testicular sperm in the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group after thawing. Sperm viability was unchanged between the experimental and control groups, both before and after freezing. Overall, a pentoxifylline-supplemented cryoprotectant can significantly improve the motility of testicular sperm before and after cryopreservation.
Polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) is sensitive to the clay present in concrete aggregates. In particular, Montmorillonite (Mnt), an impurity inevitably contained in the aggregate, can significantly influence the performance of concrete. In an effort to improve the compatibility of PCE, a zwitterionic PCE with cationic amide groups and shorter side-chain lengths was synthesized via free radical copolymerization. The optimal synthesis condition was verified via Box-Behnken design. In addition to characterizing the PCE, the performance of PCE in cement pastes with or without Na-Mnt was examined and the underlying mechanism was explored. The results show that, compared with commercially available PCE, the required dosage of PCE for cements containing Na-Mnt decreased. Unlike commercially available PCE, no intercalation occured on the newly manufactured clay-tolerant PCE within the layers of Mnt, resulting in a greater sorption thickness and improved dispersion of the cements containing Na-Mnt.
High fibre intake is associated with reduced mortality risk in both general and chronic kidney disease populations. However, in dialysis patients, such data are limited. Therefore, the association between dietary fibre intake (DFI) and the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was examined in this study. A total of 1044 maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients from eight outpatient dialysis centres in China were included in this study. Data on DFI were collected using 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d in a week and were normalised to actual dry weight. The study outcomes included all-cause and CVD mortality. Over a median of 46 months of follow-up, 354 deaths were recorded, of which 210 (59 %) were due to CVD. On assessing DFI as tertiles, the CVD mortality risk was significantly lower in patients in tertiles 2–3 (≥0·13 g/kg per d; hazard ratio (HR) 0·71; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·97) compared with those in tertile 1 (<0·13 g/kg per d). A similar but non-significant trend was found for the association between DFI (tertiles 2–3 v. tertile 1; HR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·64, 1·07) and all-cause mortality. In summary, higher DFI was associated with lower CVD mortality risk among Chinese MHD patients. This study emphasises the significance of DFI in MHD patients and provides information that is critical for the improvement of dietary guidelines for dialysis patients.
The microstructure and texture evolution of Ni-5 at%W (Ni5W) alloy substrates were investigated by in situ tensile testing along the rolling direction (RD), transverse direction (TD), and at 45° to the RD (45°-RD), as well as by electron backscatter diffraction characterization. The tensile stress direction had a significant influence on the texture evolution. The cubic texture in the Ni-5 at%W alloy exhibited severe degradation when the tensile angle was 45°-RD. In contrast, the cubic texture was relatively stable under high deformation along the RD or TD. It was found that the slip line system in the 45°-RD specimen was the key to the contrasting behavior. The effect of the tensile testing angle on the cubic texture evolution for Ni–W substrates was investigated, and the corresponding effect on the superconducting properties of coated materials was studied.
We present a theoretical study of mode evolution in high-power distributed side-coupled cladding-pumped (DSCCP) fiber amplifiers. A semi-analytical model taking the side-pumping schemes, transverse mode competition, and stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering into consideration has been built, which can model the static and dynamic mode evolution in high-power DSCCP fiber amplifiers. The mode evolution behavior has been investigated with variation of the fiber amplifier parameters, such as the pump power distribution, the length of the DSCCP fiber, the averaged coupling coefficient, the number of the pump cores and the arrangement of the pump cores. Interestingly, it revealed that static mode evolution induced by transverse mode competition is different from the dynamic evolution induced by stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering. This shows that the high-order mode experiences a slightly higher gain in DSCCP fiber amplifiers, but the mode instability thresholds for DSCCP fiber amplifiers are higher than those for their end-coupled counterparts. By increasing the pump core number and reducing the averaged coupling coefficient, the mode instability threshold can be increased, which indicates that DSCCP fibers can provide additional mitigation strategies of dynamic mode instability.
We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1–4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
This article discusses how the Chinese Communist Party governed death in Shanghai during the first half of the People's Republic of China. It examines how officials nationalized funeral institutions, promoted cremation, and transformed what they believed to be the unproductivity of the funeral industry into productivity (by raising pigs in cemeteries, for instance). I show how each of these policies eliminated possible sources of identity that were prevalent in conceptualizing who the dead were and what their relationships with the living could be. Specifically, in addition to the construction of socialist workers, the state worked to remove cosmopolitan, associational, religious, and relational ideas of self. By modifying funerary rituals and ways of interment, the Chinese state aimed to produce individualized and undifferentiated political subjects directly tied to the party-state. The civil governance of death aimed to produce citizen-subjects at the end of life.
There is growing interest globally in using real-world data (RWD) and real-world evidence (RWE) for health technology assessment (HTA). Optimal collection, analysis, and use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA requires a conceptual framework to standardize processes and ensure consistency. However, such framework is currently lacking in Asia, a region that is likely to benefit from RWD/RWE for at least two reasons. First, there is often limited Asian representation in clinical trials unless specifically conducted in Asian populations, and RWD may help to fill the evidence gap. Second, in a few Asian health systems, reimbursement decisions are not made at market entry; thus, allowing RWD/RWE to be collected to give more certainty about the effectiveness of technologies in the local setting and inform their appropriate use. Furthermore, an alignment of RWD/RWE policies across Asia would equip decision makers with context-relevant evidence, and improve timely patient access to new technologies. Using data collected from eleven health systems in Asia, this paper provides a review of the current landscape of RWD/RWE in Asia to inform HTA and explores a way forward to align policies within the region. This paper concludes with a proposal to establish an international collaboration among academics and HTA agencies in the region: the REAL World Data In ASia for HEalth Technology Assessment in Reimbursement (REALISE) working group, which seeks to develop a non-binding guidance document on the use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA for decision making in Asia.
To conduct international comparisons of self-reports, collateral reports, and cross-informant agreement regarding older adult psychopathology.
We compared self-ratings of problems (e.g. I cry a lot) and personal strengths (e.g. I like to help others) for 10,686 adults aged 60–102 years from 19 societies and collateral ratings for 7,065 of these adults from 12 societies.
Data were obtained via the Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) and the Older Adult Behavior Checklist (OABCL; Achenbach et al., 2004).
Cronbach’s alphas were .76 (OASR) and .80 (OABCL) averaged across societies. Across societies, 27 of the 30 problem items with the highest mean ratings and 28 of the 30 items with the lowest mean ratings were the same on the OASR and the OABCL. Q correlations between the means of the 0–1–2 ratings for the 113 problem items averaged across all pairs of societies yielded means of .77 (OASR) and .78 (OABCL). For the OASR and OABCL, respectively, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) yielded effect sizes (ESs) for society of 15% and 18% for Total Problems and 42% and 31% for Personal Strengths, respectively. For 5,584 cross-informant dyads in 12 societies, cross-informant correlations averaged across societies were .68 for Total Problems and .58 for Personal Strengths. Mixed-model ANOVAs yielded large effects for society on both Total Problems (ES = 17%) and Personal Strengths (ES = 36%).
The OASR and OABCL are efficient, low-cost, easily administered mental health assessments that can be used internationally to screen for many problems and strengths.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.