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To ascertain which of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI), Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) best predicted body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR).
Body size was measured at baseline (1990-94) and in 2003-7. Diet was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire, along with age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, and country of birth. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals for the association of baseline dietary scores with follow-up BMI and WHR were generated using multivariable linear regression, adjusting for baseline body-size, confounders and energy intake.
Population-based cohort in Melbourne, Australia.
Included were data from 11,030 men and 16,774 women aged 40 to 69 years at baseline.
Median (IQR) follow up was 11.6 (10.7 – 12.8) years. BMI and WHR at follow-up were associated with baseline DII® (Q5 vs Q1 (BMI 0.41 95%CI (0.21, 0.61) and WHR 0.009 95%CI (0.006, 0.013)), and AHEI (Q5 vs Q1 (BMI -0.51 95%CI (-0.68, -0.35) and WHR -0.011 95%CI (-0.013, -0.008)). WHR, but not BMI, at follow-up was associated with baseline MDS (Group 3 most Mediterranean vs G1 (BMI -0.05 95%CI (-0.23, 0.13) and WHR -0.004 95%CI (-0.007, -0.001)). Based on Akaike’s Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion statistics, AHEI was a stronger predictor of body size than the other diet scores.
Poor quality or pro-inflammatory diets predicted overall and central obesity. The AHEI may provide the best way to assess the obesogenic potential of diet.
This is a collection of essays about literature. The idea that literature is our first and principle port of call to explore contemporary fiction should not go without saying. If looking for fiction today, we might well turn towards other forms: television and film of course; mangas and video games as well. The corpus convened by this volume reaches in these directions. It includes essays that plot the massive development of graphic novels in the past two decades, that discuss crime fiction, the influence of film, the impact of television series and rock music. It also harbours various more or less fleeting intimations of YouTube and other online landscapes around the edges. One of the primary aims this collection gives itself is to blur the perimeter of the field of literature into the broader mediascape of digitally enabled or enhanced flows. Another is to focus this discussion around writing in French, where there is still a tendency in the field to demarcate French and Francophone literature. Our claim is that part of what is signified by ‘the contemporary’ is a detachment from that prior demarcation. The impetus today must be, in part, to think production in a major world language such as French through polycentric, fluctuating constellations. This does not mean to say that there is now no stake or significance in the places where this contemporary literature is emerging and finding its mechanisms of transmission and distinction, as well as its forms of economic viability. On the contrary. The transformations of the landscape that these chapters collectively assess are very largely conditioned by structures of distribution and translation. So our claim is not that global information technologies have smoothed the factors of differentiation, although they have undoubtedly reduced the lag in connection; but rather that the unevenness of the terrain is more complex today than an opposition between French and Francophone can accommodate. Just as the separation of genres on the basis of high/low, insider/outsider polarities is no longer tenable.
If neither ‘grand narratives’ nor ‘micro-histories’ were possible as the last decade of the twentieth century began, what was contemporary fiction going to do? The repercussions of a past that would not pass were carving out a broad bay in which historical, non-fictional and literary writing washed in and around one another. But what of a future struggling to begin? A future that felt blocked or stalled by this backwash. That could be neither prophecy nor consequence. Does the writing of fiction have anything specific or constitutive to offer in a context where, as Jean-Luc Nancy suggests, the drive of plot, of narrative or récit, appears to lead perpetually to the same impasse, the same foreclosure of the century on its disasters? What sort of new rhythms of writing, new phrasings and propulsions is he calling for as a means of creating lateral movement?
Data from an energetic tidal flow are used to investigate the appropriateness of the classical scaling of wall turbulence for very high Reynolds numbers and fully rough conditions. The boundary layer occupied the entire channel depth and the Reynolds numbers were several orders of magnitude larger than typically attained in the laboratory. Profiles of the mean velocity, turbulence quantities and spectra exhibit consistencies with the wall-similarity hypothesis and the attached-eddy model, as well as the universality of the near-wall turbulence structure for geophysical flows. The wall-normal velocity spectra and intensities near the free surface are also strongly attenuated at low wavenumbers, consistent with the constraints imposed by any boundary which may be approximated as a plane slip surface. The results can be used to inform the development of turbulence inflow models for assessing the dynamic loading on tidal turbines and the layout of tidal energy farms.
Our global literary field is fluid and exists in a state of constant evolution. Contemporary fiction in French has become a polycentric and transnational field of vibrant and varied experimentation; the collapse of the distinction between 'French' and 'Francophone' literature has opened up French writing to a world of new influences and interactions. In this collection, renowned scholars provide thoughtful close readings of a whole range of genres, from graphic novels to crime fiction to the influence of television and film, to analyse modern French fiction in its historical and sociological context. Allowing students of contemporary French literature and culture to situate specific works within broader trends, the volume provides an engaging, global and timely overview of contemporary fiction writing in French, and demonstrates how our modern literary world is more complex and diverse than ever before.
To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined.
A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40–59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994.
For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores.
Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
We tested the potential for sand calcites to serve as a novel paleoclimate archive by investigating their age and formation conditions. Fontainebleau sand calcites are Pleistocene in age (based on 14C and U-Th dating) and were primarily formed during glacial periods. δ13C values increase with the depth at which these sand calcites formed, consistent with open and closed CO2 systems. Interpretation of the δ18O-T relationship in sand calcites points primarily to their formation at a low temperature, around 2°C in shallow ground water and at about 9°C in deeper ground-water settings. Their occurrence, characteristics, and compositions suggest crystallization from paleo-ground waters in permafrost environments. Crystallization of sand calcites was triggered by degassing of cold carbonate-containing surface waters as they infiltrated warmer subsurface ground-water environments. We consider sand calcites to be important indicators of interactions between meteoric water and ground water in Pleistocene periglacial landscapes. Their disposition may point to specific features of periglacial landscapes, and their ages could permit an assessment of landscape incision rates. Large crystals and zoned spheroliths may, in fact, encapsulate continuous high-resolution records of continental glacial and periglacial paleoenvironments.
The policy drive to support carers is a longstanding national and international priority. Research about the design and delivery of support for carers is critical to the underpinning evidence base. Through a timely exploration of a third sector perspective, the UK-based study discussed in this article provides insights into approaches to, and the commissioning of, support for older carers and carers of people with dementia. The study highlights the importance of: embedding carers’ perspectives in service developments; the provision of both generic and targeted support which adopts a nuanced and tailored approach; titrating the delivery of information and advice at a pace to match carers’ needs; capturing quantitative and qualitative dimensions in service evaluation; and increased quantity and longevity of funding. Such insights not only complement existing research but are also generalisable to other countries at a similar stage in the development of carer support.
The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015–2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.
There is evidence that depression can be prevented; however, traditional approaches face significant scalability issues. Digital technologies provide a potential solution, although this has not been adequately tested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new smartphone app designed to reduce depression symptoms and subsequent incident depression amongst a large group of Australian workers.
A randomized controlled trial was conducted with follow-up assessments at 5 weeks and 3 and 12 months post-baseline. Participants were employed Australians reporting no clinically significant depression. The intervention group (N = 1128) was allocated to use HeadGear, a smartphone app which included a 30-day behavioural activation and mindfulness intervention. The attention-control group (N = 1143) used an app which included a 30-day mood monitoring component. The primary outcome was the level of depressive symptomatology (PHQ-9) at 3-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted within an intention-to-treat framework using mixed modelling.
Those assigned to the HeadGear arm had fewer depressive symptoms over the course of the trial compared to those assigned to the control (F3,734.7 = 2.98, p = 0.031). Prevalence of depression over the 12-month period was 8.0% and 3.5% for controls and HeadGear recipients, respectively, with odds of depression caseness amongst the intervention group of 0.43 (p = 0.001, 95% CI 0.26–0.70).
This trial demonstrates that a smartphone app can reduce depression symptoms and potentially prevent incident depression caseness and such interventions may have a role in improving working population mental health. Some caution in interpretation is needed regarding the clinical significance due to small effect size and trial attrition.
Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au/) ACTRN12617000548336
Through a case-study of one significant courtyard house owned by the Drapers’ Company and known as ‘The Erber’, this article argues that mercantile livery companies supported London's growing centrality within an expanding network of trade through the use and development of corporate properties. The micro-history at the heart of this article reveals that the ‘everyday’ built environment of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century London was shaped not just by the city elite. Also relevant to that process were the different sorts of tenants of the Drapers’ Company, who benefited from the expansion at all levels of London's mercantile activity. The trickle-down effects of global mercantilism affected spaces small and large. The investigation of the Erber highlights the domestic implications of global commercial expansion.
Studies have shown that there are overlapping traits and symptoms between autism and psychosis but no study to date has addressed this association from an epidemiological approach in the adult general population. Furthermore, it is not clear whether autistic traits are associated with specific symptoms of psychosis or with psychosis in general. We assess these associations for the first time by using the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) 2007 and the APMS 2014, predicting an association between autistic traits and probable psychosis, and specific associations between autistic traits and paranoia and strange experiences.
Participants (N = 7353 in 2007 and 7500 in 2014) completed the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) and a 20-item version of the Autism Quotient (AQ-20). Binomial logistic regressions were performed using AQ-20 as the independent variable and probable psychosis and specific symptoms as dependent variables.
In the APMS 2007 dataset, significant associations were found between autism traits and probable psychosis, paranoia, thought insertion, and strange experiences. These results were replicated in APMS 2014 but with the additional significant association between autistic traits and hallucinations. Participants in the highest quartile of the AQ-20, compared with the lowest quartile, had an increased risk of probable psychosis of odds ratio (OR) = 15.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.57–52.6] in APMS 2007 and OR = 22.5 (95% CI 7.64–66.3) in APMS 2014.
Autistic traits are strongly associated with probable psychosis and psychotic experiences with the exception of mania. Limitations such as the cross-sectional nature of the study are discussed.