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The past year, 2019, was the bicentenary of the birth of Queen Victoria. Since 2001, the centenary of her death, much has changed in the scholarship about the British queen. Her own journals and correspondence are more available for researchers. European monarchies are now being taken seriously as historical topics. There is also less agreement about the Victorian era as a distinct period of study, leaving Victoria's own relationship with the era she eponymizes less certain. With these changing perspectives in mind, this article looks at six recent books about Victoria (four biographies, one study of royal matchmaking, and one edited volume) in order to reassess her reign. The article is focused on three themes: Queen Victoria as a female monarch, her role in building a dynastic empire, and her prerogative—how she influenced the politics of church and state. The article concludes by warning that biography is not the medium best suited for taking advantage of all the new historical contexts for understanding Queen Victoria's life.
Psychosocial interventions that mitigate psychosocial distress in cancer patients are important. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of an adaptation of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program among adult cancer patients. A secondary aim was to examine pre–post-program changes in psychosocial wellbeing.
The research design was a feasibility and acceptability study, with an examination of pre- to post-intervention changes in psychosocial measures. A study information pack was posted to 173 adult cancer patients 6 months–5 years post-diagnosis, with an invitation to attend an eight-week group-based adaptation of the MSC program.
Thirty-two (19%) consented to the program, with 30 commencing. Twenty-seven completed the program (mean age: 62.93 years, SD 14.04; 17 [63%] female), attending a mean 6.93 (SD 1.11) group sessions. There were no significant differences in medico-demographic factors between program-completers and those who did not consent. However, there was a trend toward shorter time since diagnosis in the program-completers group. Program-completers rated the program highly regarding content, relevance to the concerns of cancer patients, and the likelihood of recommending the program to other cancer patients. Sixty-three percent perceived that their mental wellbeing had improved from pre- to post-program; none perceived a deterioration in mental wellbeing. Small-to-medium effects were observed for depressive symptoms, fear of cancer recurrence, stress, loneliness, body image satisfaction, mindfulness, and self-compassion.
Significance of results
The MSC program appears feasible and acceptable to adults diagnosed with non-advanced cancer. The preliminary estimates of effect sizes in this sample suggest that participation in the program was associated with improvements in psychosocial wellbeing. Collectively, these findings suggest that there may be value in conducting an adequately powered randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of the MSC program in enhancing the psychosocial wellbeing of cancer patients.
Trust and reputation allow agents to make informed decisions about potential interactions. Trust in an agent is derived from direct experience with that agent, while reputation is determined by the experiences reported by other witness agents with potentially differing viewpoints. These experiences are typically aggregated in a trust and reputation model, of which there are several types that focus on different aspects. Such aspects include handling subjective perspectives of witnesses, dishonesty, or assessing the reputation of new agents. In this paper, we distil reputation systems into their fundamental aspects, discussing first how trust and reputation information is represented and second how it is disseminated among agents. Based on these discussions, a unifying abstraction is presented for trust and reputation systems, which is demonstrated by instantiating it with a broad range of reputation systems found in the literature. The abstraction is then instantiated to combine the range of capabilities of existing reputation systems in the Machine Learning Reputation System, which is evaluated using a marketplace simulation.
The present study determined whether parenting style, defined by control strategies varying in power-assertion mediated the established relation between maternal language usage (grammar and semantics) and child language (grammar, semantics and pragmatics) during toddlerhood (n=60). Based upon their use of control strategies mothers were categorized into continuum-of-control groups (i.e. high guidance (HG), high control (HC) or high negative control (HNC)). Mothers in the high negative control group, who characteristically used high levels of prohibitions and commands, had children who performed relatively poorly overall on the language measures (i.e. MLU, number of bound morphemes, number of different words and use of language functions). In contrast, children of mothers in the HG and HC groups exhibited more advanced language usage overall. The relation between maternal and child language usage was mediated by parenting style for child pragmatics and partially for child grammar.
In August 1831 Joseph Hume, the radical MP for Middlesex, introduced a little-known amendment to the reform bill. He proposed that nineteen extra MPs should be added to the House of Commons for the colonies (four for British India, eight for the Crown Colonies, three each for British America and the West Indies, and one for the Channel Islands). All those eligible for jury service would constitute the electorate in these colonies, and their chosen representatives would sit in Parliament for a guaranteed three years. Somewhat surprisingly, Hume's amendment was supported, not by his radical or Whig colleagues, but by a rather motley collection of ultra Tories: the Marquis of Chandos, Sir John Malcolm and Sir Charles Wetherell amongst the most prominent of those who seemed to have little problem with extending the vote to thousands overseas whilst resisting the £10 franchise at home. Less surprisingly, the amendment was defeated, and although the Duke of Richmond tried to press it on his cabinet colleagues later in the year as they drafted the third version of their reform bill, the attempt to introduce direct representation of the colonies was unsuccessful in 1832, just as it had been when advocated sixty years earlier by principled Whigs such as George Grenville, and as it was later in the nineteenth century when put forward by cunning Tories such as George Curzon.
Hume's amendment, however, is more than a curious footnote to the history of parliamentary representation.
The 1832 Reform Act enfranchised around half a million men in Britain and Ireland. By abolishing the small nomination boroughs, according to its critics, it disfranchised many millions more across the British empire. ‘How far’, asked Sir Robert Inglis, making the first opposition speech in the Commons against the Reform Bill, ‘the rights of distant dependencies, of the East Indies, of the West Indies, of the Colonies … could find their just support in the House, I know not.’ Other Tory opponents were more specific. Sir Richard Vyvyan reckoned the Reform Bill would create a ‘tyrannical assembly’ over 120 million in the colonial empire unless small boroughs remained open to men with imperial experience and interests. Michael Sadler thought ‘scores of millions’ in ‘this extensive empire’ would be left unrepresented. And Sir John Malcolm feared that 80 million people in India ‘would not find one Representative in the British Parliament’. Writing in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine in May 1831, Archibald Alison summed up the Tory case against the imperial deficiencies of the Whig reform bill: ‘[n]ominally professing to extend, this bill is really destined to contract, the representation, to base the legislature, not upon the empire, but the island’. Without adequate representation, Tories believed that the empire – that is, the union with Ireland, the protected trade of India and Canada, and the plantation economies of the West Indies – would be lost, and, in the words of the earl of Falmouth, ‘[t]his great State would be divided into several small Republics, which would probably soon become the provinces of some greater Power’.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the ‘developed’ world, with the number of new cases per year in the UK and USA being 34000 and 180000, respectively. Breast cancer is rare below the age of 30 but the incidence increases up to the age of 50. Beyond the age of 50, the incidence continues to rise but more slowly compared with premenopausal women. Although the incidence of breast cancer is increasing, recent data suggest that the mortality rate is decreasing. Nevertheless, with a death rate of 20 to 25 per 100000 in the West and a prevalence over three times the incidence, breast cancer continues to be a significant public health problem. Factors conferring an increased risk of breast cancer include mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA-1 and BRCA-2. While mutations in these genes account for the majority of familial breast cancers, they account for only 5 to 10% of all breast cancers. Other factors conferring increased risk include the presence of atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in situ (cytologically malignant cells confined within a duct or lobule). Obesity, high alcohol consumption, prolonged use of oestrogens and previous radiotherapy to the breast are thought to confer an increase in risk of less than twice the background risk.
The majority of cases of breast cancer present with a lump in the breast which may be associated with nipple discharge and/or deformity of the breast.
The title The mentalities of gorillas and orangutans: Comparative perspectives was inspired by Köhler's famous book The mentality of apes (1927), in which apes were implicitly equated with chimpanzees. This book focuses on two other great apes that were less known in Köhler's day. It is the fourth in a related series of edited volumes on cognition of great apes. The first volume, “Language” and intelligence in monkeys and apes (Parker & Gibson, 1990), emphasized the importance of using models from developmental psychology to compare the cognitive and symbolic abilities of monkeys, apes, and humans. The second volume, Self-awareness in animals and humans (Parker, Mitchell, & Boccia, 1994), used developmental frameworks to compare manifestations of self-awareness in monkeys, apes, and humans. It was aimed at broadening the scope of research in this subject to extend beyond the classical mark test for mirror self-recognition. The third volume, Reaching into thought (Russon, Bard, and Parker, 1996), focused on cognitive abilities of great apes using models from developmental psychology, but extended the scope to include studies in wild populations. This most recent volume continues the tradition of using models from developmental psychology to compare the cognitive abilities of great apes, and that of including studies from both captive and wild populations. It also expands the preview to include studies of taxonomy and phylogeny (Begun, this volume) and the brain (Semendeferi, this volume). It differs from the other volumes in focusing primarily on gorillas and orangutans. The aim of this volume is to redress the chimpocentric imbalance in attention to chimpanzees and bonobos at the expense of the other great apes.
Research on the mental abilities of chimpanzees and bonobos has been widely celebrated and used in reconstructions of human evolution. In contrast, less attention has been paid to the abilities of gorillas and orangutans. This 1999 volume aims to help complete the picture of hominoid cognition by bringing together the work on gorillas and orangutans and setting it in comparative perspective. The introductory chapters set the evolutionary context for comparing cognition in gorillas and orangutans to that of chimpanzees, bonobos and humans. The remaining chapters focus primarily on the kinds and levels of intelligence displayed by orangutans and gorillas compared to other great apes, including performances in the classic domains of tool use and tool making, imitation, self-awareness, social communication and symbol use. All those wanting more information on the mental abilities of these sometimes neglected, but important primates will find this book a treasure trove.