Sixteen species of lichenicolous fungi are documented from Siphula-like lichens. Two new genera based on new species are introduced. Amylogalla Suija, Motiej. & Kantvilas, characterized by I+ blue, K/I+ violet vegetative hyphae and ascomatal wall, immersed, cleistohymenial, yellowish to orange ascomata, unitunicate, non-amyloid, 8-spored asci and hyaline, ellipsoid, aseptate ascospores, is described from Parasiphula in Tasmania. Saania Zhurb., characterized by superficial, stromatic, multilocular ascomata, non-amyloid hymenial gel, persistent periphysoids, bitunicate, non-amyloid, 4(–8)-spored asci and narrowly obovate to ellipsoid, 1(–3)-septate, initially hyaline and smooth-walled, later sometimes brown and verruculose ascospores, is described from Siphula in South Africa. Four additional species are described as new: two from Siphula (Cercidospora santessonii Motiej., Zhurb., Suija & Kantvilas and Stigmidium kashiwadanii Zhurb.) and two from Parasiphula (Endococcus hafellnerianus Motiej., Suija & Kantvilas and Pyrenidium macrosporum Motiej., Zhurb., Suija & Kantvilas). Additional hosts and/or expanded geographical ranges are reported for Aabaarnia siphulicola, Epigloea soleiformis, Plectocarpon gayanum and Pyrenidium actinellum. The Southern Hemisphere is the centre of species richness for siphulicolous fungi, with 12 species restricted to this region. Taxa recorded for the Northern Hemisphere are Sphaerellothecium siphulae (arctic and boreal) and the subcosmopolitan Epigloea soleiformis and Pyrenidium actinellum, both of which are also known from various lichen hosts. The distribution of siphulicolous fungi strongly underpins the current generic classification of Siphula-like lichens, with five species being confined exclusively to Parasiphula and nine to Siphula. A key to the taxa occurring on Siphula and Parasiphula is provided.