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This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
People with severe mental illness (SMI) have an elevated risk of obesity but the causes and mechanisms are unclear. We explored the familial association between parental SMI and body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged offspring. Our objective was to determine if the offspring of either parent with SMI have an increased risk for obesity.
The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 is a cohort study of offspring with expected date of birth in 1966. The data include originally 12 068 mothers and 12 231 children from the provinces of Lapland and Oulu in Finland. The final study sample included 5050 middle-aged offspring. Parental SMI was used as exposure in the study. BMI measured at the age of 46 years was used as a primary outcome.
Risk for obesity was elevated in the offspring of mothers with SMI [overweight: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.93 (1.29–2.90), obese class I: 1.97 (1.20–3.25), obese classes II–III: 2.98 (1.67–5.33)]. For the offspring of either parent with SMI, statistically significant results were found in obese class I and obese classes II–III [overweight: adjusted OR 1.21 (0.94–1.54), obese class I: 1.52 (1.03–1.08), obese classes II–III: 1.53 (1.01–2.32)].
We found an elevated risk of obesity in the middle-aged offspring of either parent with SMI, especially in the offspring of mothers with SMI. Thus, there might be a common familial pathway leading to the co-occurrence of obesity and SMI.
Long-term ‘not in education, employment or training’ (NEET) status is an important indicator of youth marginalisation.
To carry out a comprehensive overview of the associations between different psychiatric illnesses and long-term NEET status.
We used the register-based 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort study, which includes all live births in Finland during that year. The analyses comprised 55 273 individuals after exclusions for intellectual disability, death or emigration. We predicted that psychiatric disorders, diagnosed by specialist services between 1998 and 2007 when the cohort were 10–20 years of age, would be associated with subsequent long-term NEET (defined as NEET for at least 5 years between 2008 and 2015, when they were 20–28 years of age).
In total, 1438 individuals (2.6%) were long-term NEET during follow-up and the associations between long-term NEET and the 11 diagnostic categories we studied were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multivariate models we included sociodemographic characteristics and upper secondary education as covariates, and the highest effect sizes, measured by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), were found for psychosis (OR = 12.0, 95% CI 9.5–15.2) and autism spectrum disorder (OR = 17.3, 95% CI 11.5–26.0). If individuals had not successfully completed this education, 70.6% of those with autism spectrum disorder and 48.4% of those with psychosis were later long-term NEET.
Adolescents who receive treatment for psychiatric disorders, particularly autism spectrum disorder or psychosis, need support to access education and employment. This could help to prevent marginalisation in early adulthood.
Studies on the transmission of suicide risk have focused on parental history of suicide attempts (SAs), overlooking when the attempt happened. This study examined how the offspring's risk of attempting or dying by suicide varied by the timing of a first parental SA and the sex of the parent who attempted suicide.
Participants were 59 469 members of the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort. The Finnish Hospital Discharge and Cause of Death Registers were the sources for parental and offspring SAs and offspring suicide. Timing of parental SA was coded as before (pre-pregnancy and pregnancy) and after the child's birth [infant/toddler years (0–2 years), childhood (3–11 years), adolescence (12–17 years), and young adulthood (18–26 years)].
In the multivariate models, having a parent who attempted suicide increased the offspring's risk of attempting suicide (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39–2.25), but not of dying by suicide. Compared to unexposed offspring, those exposed after child's birth were at higher risk of attempting suicide (OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.46–2.47), specifically when the parent attempted during offspring's childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. A first maternal SA increased offspring's risk of attempting suicide regardless of the timing.
The impact of a parental SA on offspring's risk of attempting suicide differed depending on the timing and sex of the parent who attempted suicide, suggesting that the transmission of suicide risk may occur through genetic as well as environmental factors. Our findings call for an intergenerational approach in suicide risk assessment.
Higher incidence of psychotic disorders and underuse of mental health services have been reported among many migrant populations. This study examines the initiation and continuity of antipsychotic treatment among migrants and non-migrants with a non-affective psychosis during a new treatment episode.
This study is based on a nationwide sample of migrants and Finnish-born controls. Participants who were diagnosed with a psychotic disorder in 2011–2014 were identified from the Care Register for Health Care (n = 1693). Information on purchases of antipsychotic drugs in 2011–2015 was collected from the National Prescription Register. The duration of antipsychotic treatment since diagnosis was estimated using the PRE2DUP model. Cox regression analysis was used to study factors that are associated with discontinuing the use of medication.
There were fewer initiators of antipsychotic treatment after being diagnosed with psychosis among migrants (68.1%) than among Finnish-born patients (73.6%). After controlling for sociodemographic background and factors related to the type of disorder and treatment, migrants were more likely to discontinue medication (adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.08–1.52). The risk of discontinuation was highest among migrants from North Africa and the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa and among recent migrants. Non-use of antipsychotic treatment before being diagnosed with psychosis, involuntary hospitalization and diagnosis other than schizophrenia were associated with earlier discontinuation both among migrants and non-migrants.
Migrants with a psychotic disorder are less likely to continue antipsychotic treatment than non-migrants. The needs of migrant patients have to be addressed to improve adherence.
People with mental disorders evince excess mortality due to natural and unnatural deaths. The relative life expectancy of people with mental disorders is a proxy measure of effectiveness of social policy and health service provision.
To evaluate trends in health outcomes of people with serious mental disorders.
We examined nationwide 5-year consecutive cohorts of people admitted to hospital for mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden in 1987–2006. In each country the risk population was identified from hospital discharge registers and mortality data were retrieved from cause-of-death registers. The main outcome measure was life expectancy at age 15 years.
People admitted to hospital for a mental disorder had a two- to threefold higher mortality than the general population in all three countries studied. This gap in life expectancy was more pronounced for men than for women. The gap decreased between 1987 and 2006 in these countries, especially for women. The notable exception was Swedish men with mental disorders. In spite of the positive general trend, men with mental disorders still live 20 years less, and women 15 years less, than the general population.
During the era of deinstitutionalisation the life expectancy gap for people with mental disorders has somewhat diminished in the three Nordic countries. Our results support further development of the Nordic welfare state model, i.e. tax-funded community-based public services and social protection. Health promotion actions, improved access to healthcare and prevention of suicides and violence are needed to further reduce the life expectancy gap.
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