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Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on the dietary habits of the Japanese population have shown that an effect rs671 allele was inversely associated with fish consumption, whereas it was directly associated with coffee consumption. Although meat is a major source of protein and fat in the diet, whether genetic factors that influence meat-eating habits in healthy populations are unknown. This study aimed to conduct a GWAS to find genetic variations that affect meat consumption in a Japanese population. We analysed GWAS data using 14 076 participants from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study. We used a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to estimate food intake that was validated previously. Association of the imputed variants with total meat consumption per 1000 kcal energy was performed by linear regression analysis with adjustments for age, sex, and principal component analysis components 1–10. We found that no genetic variant, including rs671, was associated with meat consumption. The previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms that were associated with meat consumption in samples of European ancestry could not be replicated in our J-MICC data. In conclusion, significant genetic factors that affect meat consumption were not observed in a Japanese population.
The methods and applications that integrate electron microscopic density maps and comparative atomic coordinates to generate atomic models of protein complexes and their assemblies have recently advanced. Here, we also report on a newly developed tool for integration between density maps at a spatial resolution of about one nanometer and atomic coordinates by introducing the spatial constraints into a molecular dynamics calculation, which we call spatially restricted molecular dynamics. We, successfully, constructed the atomic models well-fitted to the density maps generated from nine different atomic coordinates of proteins. The method will give us the useful, refined, and presumable atomic structure of macromolecules to elucidate the relationship between their structure and functions.
This study aimed to assess the visuospatial abilities of five children with Williams syndrome (four males aged 9 years 3 months, 7 years 11 months, 8 years 1 month, and 10 years 8 months respectively, and one female aged 6 years 3 months). First, the children's visuospatial abilities were examined by asking them to copy a figure. Second, their cognitive processing abilities were assessed using the Japanese Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. This test was used because it is an objective one, standardized in Japan, and is a measure of fluid ability including spatial localization. Participants scored significantly low on the spatial memory subtest indicating that there was a deficit in spatial localization. Children's performance in line copying tasks improved when the dots were in colour. Results suggest a deficit in the dorsal stream of visual cognition, with a relatively preserved ventral stream.
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