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Burnout is highly prevalent among medical students. This study aimed to assess burnout levels over the course of a semester and identify variables that might explain burnout’s variance over time.
This longitudinal study involved medical students from a Portuguese school. Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Mental Health Inventory-5, along with questions related to social support, help-seeking behaviours, academic performance, mental health and lifestyle assessment at the beginning (first phase), middle (second phase) and end (third phase) of the first semester of 2018–2019 academic year.
A total of 108 participants provided responses in all phases (paired sample). The prevalence of burnout in the first phase was 28.2%, which increased to 34% in the second and 39.5% in the third. To explore factors contributing to burnout levels, we used the 332 responses obtained in the third phase (non-paired sample). Higher burnout levels were associated with poor academic performance, mental health stigma, consumption of tranquillisers and living away from home. Conversely, they were negatively associated with social support and a healthy lifestyle.
The study reveals a high prevalence of burnout among medical students, with burnout levels increasing throughout the semester. These levels are influenced by modifiable variables.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has serious physiological and psychological consequences. The long-term (>12 weeks post-infection) impact of COVID-19 on mental health, specifically in older adults, is unclear. We longitudinally assessed the association of COVID-19 with depression symptomatology in community-dwelling older adults with metabolic syndrome within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus cohort.
Participants (n = 5486) aged 55–75 years were included in this longitudinal cohort. COVID-19 status (positive/negative) determined by tests (e.g. polymerase chain reaction severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, IgG) was confirmed via event adjudication (410 cases). Pre- and post-COVID-19 depressive symptomatology was ascertained from annual assessments conducted using a validated 21-item Spanish Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models assessed the association between COVID-19 and depression symptomatology.
COVID-19 in older adults was associated with higher post-COVID-19 BDI-II scores measured at a median (interquartile range) of 29 (15–40) weeks post-infection [fully adjusted β = 0.65 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–1.15; p = 0.011]. This association was particularly prominent in women (β = 1.38 points, 95% CI 0.44–2.33, p = 0.004). COVID-19 was associated with 62% increased odds of elevated depression risk (BDI-II ≥ 14) post-COVID-19 when adjusted for confounders (odds ratio; 95% CI 1.13–2.30, p = 0.008).
COVID-19 was associated with long-term depression risk in older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly in women. Thus, long-term evaluations of the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and preventive public health initiatives are warranted in older adults.
While cannabis use is a well-established risk factor for psychosis, little is known about any association between reasons for first using cannabis (RFUC) and later patterns of use and risk of psychosis.
We used data from 11 sites of the multicentre European Gene-Environment Interaction (EU-GEI) case–control study. 558 first-episode psychosis patients (FEPp) and 567 population controls who had used cannabis and reported their RFUC.
We ran logistic regressions to examine whether RFUC were associated with first-episode psychosis (FEP) case–control status. Path analysis then examined the relationship between RFUC, subsequent patterns of cannabis use, and case–control status.
Controls (86.1%) and FEPp (75.63%) were most likely to report ‘because of friends’ as their most common RFUC. However, 20.1% of FEPp compared to 5.8% of controls reported: ‘to feel better’ as their RFUC (χ2 = 50.97; p < 0.001). RFUC ‘to feel better’ was associated with being a FEPp (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.03–2.95) while RFUC ‘with friends’ was associated with being a control (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.83). The path model indicated an association between RFUC ‘to feel better’ with heavy cannabis use and with FEPp-control status.
Both FEPp and controls usually started using cannabis with their friends, but more patients than controls had begun to use ‘to feel better’. People who reported their reason for first using cannabis to ‘feel better’ were more likely to progress to heavy use and develop a psychotic disorder than those reporting ‘because of friends’.
This systematic literature review aimed to provide an overview of the characteristics and methods used in studies applying the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) concept for infectious diseases within European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA)/European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and the United Kingdom. Electronic databases and grey literature were searched for articles reporting the assessment of DALY and its components. We considered studies in which researchers performed DALY calculations using primary epidemiological data input sources. We screened 3053 studies of which 2948 were excluded and 105 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 22 were multi-country and 83 were single-country studies, of which 46 were from the Netherlands. Food- and water-borne diseases were the most frequently studied infectious diseases. Between 2015 and 2022, the number of burden of infectious disease studies was 1.6 times higher compared to that published between 2000 and 2014. Almost all studies (97%) estimated DALYs based on the incidence- and pathogen-based approach and without social weighting functions; however, there was less methodological consensus with regards to the disability weights and life tables that were applied. The number of burden of infectious disease studies undertaken across Europe has increased over time. Development and use of guidelines will promote performing burden of infectious disease studies and facilitate comparability of the results.
Child maltreatment (CM) and migrant status are independently associated with psychosis. We examined prevalence of CM by migrant status and tested whether migrant status moderated the association between CM and first-episode psychosis (FEP). We further explored whether differences in CM exposure contributed to variations in the incidence rates of FEP by migrant status.
We included FEP patients aged 18–64 years in 14 European sites and recruited controls representative of the local populations. Migrant status was operationalized according to generation (first/further) and region of origin (Western/non-Western countries). The reference population was composed by individuals of host country's ethnicity. CM was assessed with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Prevalence ratios of CM were estimated using Poisson regression. We examined the moderation effect of migrant status on the odds of FEP by CM fitting adjusted logistic regressions with interaction terms. Finally, we calculated the population attributable fractions (PAFs) for CM by migrant status.
We examined 849 FEP cases and 1142 controls. CM prevalence was higher among migrants, their descendants and migrants of non-Western heritage. Migrant status, classified by generation (likelihood test ratio:χ2 = 11.3, p = 0.004) or by region of origin (likelihood test ratio:χ2 = 11.4, p = 0.003), attenuated the association between CM and FEP. PAFs for CM were higher among all migrant groups compared with the reference populations.
The higher exposure to CM, despite a smaller effect on the odds of FEP, accounted for a greater proportion of incident FEP cases among migrants. Policies aimed at reducing CM should consider the increased vulnerability of specific subpopulations.
The objective of the present study was to assess the association between the observed and perceived food environment and food insecurity among households with children <18 years in Lima, Peru. This was a cross-sectional study including an income-stratified random sample of households (n 329) in Villa el Salvador, a low-income district in Lima, Peru. Data were collected with a household questionnaire – including the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and the University of Pennsylvania's Perceived Nutrition Environment Survey (NEMS-P) – and a neighbourhood food outlet census, including recording of food outlets’ GPS coordinates. Three-quarters of the households interviewed were food insecure. Compared with food secure households and adjusting for socio-demographic covariates, food insecure households were more likely to disagree to having easy access (OR 5⋅4; 95 % CI 2⋅1, 13⋅4), high quality (OR 3⋅1; 95 % CI 1⋅7, 5⋅5) and variety (OR 2⋅5; 95 % CI 1⋅4, 4⋅6) of fresh fruits and vegetables in their neighbourhood. About 60 % (513 out of 861) of the food outlets identified in participants’ neighbourhoods were classified as fresh, including markets, bodegas, and fruit and vegetable vendors. There was no difference in distance to fresh food outlets by household food insecurity; all households were on average within 52–62 m from a fresh food outlet (~2-min walk). Despite negative perceptions of their neighbourhood food environment, food insecure households had similar physical access to fresh food sources than their food secure counterparts. Thus, changes to the food environment may not alleviate food insecurity in urban poor areas of Peru.
To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
An 18-month-old male with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect presented with stridor after neonatal systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt surgery, that persisted on follow-up. CT angiography revealed a vascular ring with balanced double aortic arch.
The empirical literature on the contributions of human capital investments to economic growth shows mixed results. While evidence from OECD countries demonstrates that human capital accumulation is associated with growth accelerations, the substantial efforts of developing countries to improve access to and quality of education, as a means for skill accumulation, did not translate into higher income per capita. In this Element, we propose a framework, building on the principles of 'growth diagnostics', to enable practitioners to determine whether human capital investments are a priority for a country's growth strategy. We then discuss and exemplify different tests to diagnose human capital in a place, drawing on the Harvard Growth Lab's experience in different development context, and discuss various policy options to address skill shortages.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to the number of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing polygenic vulnerability. Here, we investigated, in the largest sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases to date, whether childhood adversity and high polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (SZ-PRS) combine synergistically to increase the risk of psychosis, over and above the effect of each alone.
We assigned a schizophrenia-polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS), calculated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2), to all participants in a sample of 384 FEP patients and 690 controls from the case–control component of the EU-GEI study. Only participants of European ancestry were included in the study. A history of childhood adversity was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Synergistic effects were estimated using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) [odds ratio (OR)exposure and PRS − ORexposure − ORPRS + 1] with adjustment for potential confounders.
There was some evidence that the combined effect of childhood adversities and polygenic risk was greater than the sum of each alone, as indicated by an ICR greater than zero [i.e. ICR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.29 to 3.85]. Examining subtypes of childhood adversities, the strongest synergetic effect was observed for physical abuse (ICR 6.25, 95% CI −6.25 to 20.88).
Our findings suggest possible synergistic effects of genetic liability and childhood adversity experiences in the onset of FEP, but larger samples are needed to increase precision of estimates.
Human–wildlife interactions (HWIs) occur in many rural African communities, with potential impacts on livelihood vulnerability. High livelihood vulnerability may force communities to employ strategies that increase the risk of negative HWIs, yet the extent to which HWIs drive or are driven by vulnerability is unclear. We hypothesized that more vulnerable households are more likely to be exposed to wildlife and experience negative interactions. To test this hypothesis, we calculated the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) of rural households in and around Quirimbas National Park (north-eastern Mozambique) and assessed whether there is a link between livelihood vulnerability and HWIs. We found a two-way association between LVI and HWIs, with more vulnerable households indeed taking greater risks and encountering wildlife when fetching water from rivers, whereas less vulnerable households tended not to employ strategies likely to increase wildlife encounters. We also observed that HWIs exert a strong effect on livelihood vulnerability, suggesting that HWIs should be included as an exposure factor in vulnerability assessments for rural households. We recommend that livelihood strategies and community vulnerability should be considered when designing HWI mitigation schemes and implementing conservation measures.
The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has improved with the search of novel antigens; however, their performance is limited when samples from VL/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients are tested. In this context, studies conducted to identify more suitable antigens to detect both VL and VL/HIC coinfection cases should be performed. In the current study, phage display was performed using serum samples from healthy subjects and VL, HIV-infected and VL/HIV-coinfected patients; aiming to identify novel phage-exposed epitopes to be evaluated with this diagnostic purpose. Nine non-repetitive and valid sequences were identified, synthetized and tested as peptides in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments. Results showed that three (Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4) peptides showed excellent performance to diagnose VL and VL/HIV coinfection, with 100% sensitivity and specificity values. The other peptides showed sensitivity varying from 50.9 to 80.0%, as well as specificity ranging from 60.0 to 95.6%. Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 also showed a potential prognostic effect, since specific serological reactivity was significantly decreased after patient treatment. Bioinformatics assays indicated that Leishmania trypanothione reductase protein was predicted to contain these three conformational epitopes. In conclusion, data suggest that Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 could be tested for the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV coinfection.
The spatial distribution of Neotropical birds at local scales is often associated with plant successional stages and unique microhabitats such as bamboo stands and treefall gaps. Only 15% of the Atlantic Forest remains, yet this habitat is home to more than 200 endemic birds. Understanding the distribution of bird species within the Atlantic Forest can improve the test of ecological hypotheses related to habitat use and habitat selection. This study analyses the distribution of birds among different types of relief (lowlands, ravines, hillsides, and hilltops) in 41 forest fragments of different sizes (1 to 384.5 ha) within the Atlantic Forest, south east Brazil. The presence and absence data were analysed with dynamic occupancy models to determine the influence of area and topography in the distribution of bird species. Of the 169 species detected, we were able to estimate an occupancy probability of 67. Among them, relief type was an important variable for 26 species (39%). Most species showed a preference for lowlands and ravines, and some showed an association of combinations of these two reliefs with hillsides and hilltops. These preferences might be related to distribution of preferred food, nesting microhabitats, and thermoregulation. For the endemic and threatened Atlantic Forest mountain birds, the ecological association with areas of relief is a strong, and previously unsuspected, spatial distribution pattern. Our results suggest that the ecology and distribution of birds in tropical forests across hilly regions could be better understood if topography is considered. This pattern should be better investigated among other taxa in tropical forests.
Eating Disorders are a frequent pathology, particularly among teenagers, a group characterized by its vulnerability and body dissatisfaction. Social networks (SN) can be a gateway to ED, mainly with Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia resources. Despite the aforementioned, SN can also be helpful for professionals, either as a tool of approach to vulnerable groups or as a way of interaction in patients already diagnosed.
To study the relationship between ED and SN, using the open access evidence available in Pubmed over the last 5 years.
A single-phase computerised search was carried out in Pubmed. The search terms were: (“Anorexia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Bulimia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Feeding and Eating Disorders”[Mesh] OR “Eating Disorders”[Tiab] OR “Eating Disorder”[Tiab] OR “Disorder, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Disorders, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Anorexia”[Tiab] OR “Bulimia”[Tiab]) AND (“blogging”[Mesh] OR “social media”[Mesh]). The filters applied were: “free Full Text” and publications for the last 5 years.
36.84% studied SN as a positive tool for ED. 47.37% revealed negative influence, only 44.44% focused on Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia. 15.79% provided both positive and negative arguments. The most studied SN were Twitter and Facebook.
Despite the known negative effect that SN can have on ED, they can also be used as a supportive recovery framework. They can be used to identify dangerous behaviours and intervene or as a prevention tool.
INTRODUCTION TikTok is a social network (SN) that allows users to share short videos about different issues. Since the COVID-19 lockdown, there has been an increase in Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia videos in this specific SN.
OBJECTIVES To know the main characteristics about Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia contents among TikTok users.
METHODS A search was carried out using uncontrolled language with the term “TCA” (ED in English). The study included only Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia resources in Spanish. Resources under the category “recovery” were excluded. A random sample of 16 TikTok was used, since it is enough to estimate, with a confidence of 95% and an accuracy of +/- 20 percentage units, a population percentage that is expected to be around 20%. The studied variables were images, type of resources, “challenges” and misspelled words.
RESULTS In the sample, 68.75% of the profiles were created upon confinement, 56.25% had more than 500 followers and 68.75% had more than 3000 “likes”. 43.75% included more than 30% of ED advocacy content, 18.75% promoted challenges and 37.5% used misspelled words to avoid SN censorship.
CONCLUSIONS There has been a remarkable increase in ED-related content as a result of lockdown. In turn, the increasing number of users who are part of TikTok reveals that this is a SN that can be associated with ED advocacy.
Accurate assessment of age and growth of fish is essential to understand population dynamics, namely for age-structured stock assessment and for determining vital rates of fish (e.g. age at sexual maturity) and their relationship with environmental variability. To validate the daily deposition in the otoliths of European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) larvae, these were reared with a range of food densities translating into feeding rates extending from less than required for maintenance to saturated feeding levels. When exogenous feeding began, a high variability in the relationship between number of growth increments (GI) and elapsed days after hatching (dph) was observed, irrespective of the feeding treatment. GI counts using a light microscope were less than one per day for larvae <15 dph (ranging from 0.17–0.43 GI day−1) and similar for larvae reared with different food concentrations. The rate of GI count vs age was significantly higher for larvae older than 15 dph. GI count from 3–30 dph was lower than one per day (0.45–0.75 GI day−1 95% CI) for fed larvae 3–30 dph. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the daily deposition of GI and revealed some increment widths around 0.2 μm, particularly during the first week post-hatch. Otoliths of wild sardine larvae exhibited narrow GI (<0.5 μm) comparable with reared larvae. This study demonstrates that during the first weeks after hatch the daily increment deposition is underestimated using traditional light microscopy, which must be taken into account in future works determining wild sardine larval growth.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.