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The aim of this study was to assess the association between alcohol intake and premature mortality (younger than 65 years) and to explore the effect of potential alcohol underreporting by heavy drinkers. We followed-up 20,272 university graduates. Four categories of alcohol intake were considered (abstainer, light, moderate and heavy consumption). Repeated measurements of alcohol intake and updated information on confounders were used in time-dependent Cox models. Potential underreporting of alcohol intake by some heavy drinkers (likely misclassified as light or moderate drinkers) was explicitly addressed in an attempt to correct potential underreporting by using indirect information.
During 12.3 years of median follow-up (interquartile range: 6.8-15.0), 226 participants died before their 65th birthday. A higher risk of early mortality was found for the highest category of alcohol intake (≥50 g/d) in comparison with abstention (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) =2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.38-5.79). In analyses of alcohol as a continuous variable, the multivariable-adjusted HR was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08-1.26), for each 10 g/d of alcohol. This harmful linear association was present both in uncorrected models and in models corrected for potential underreporting. No significant inverse association between light or moderate alcohol intake and premature mortality was observed, even after correcting for potential misclassification.
Alcohol intake exhibited a harmful linear dose-response association with premature mortality (<65 years) in this young and highly-educated Mediterranean cohort. Our attempts to correct for potential misclassification did not substantially change these results.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) not fulfilling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case definition underwent severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening. Risk of exposure, adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE), and symptoms were assessed. In total, 2,000 HCWs were screened: 5.5% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no differences in PPE use between SARS-CoV-2–positive and –negative HCWs (adherence, >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 results.
To analyse the information on health claims present in the labelling of creatine monohydrate (CM) products.
A descriptive study of a selection of products marketed as CM, with health claims, and that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, was conducted using the Amazon and Google Shopping websites. The adequacy and compliance of the health claims were evaluated with the European legislative requirements (European Food Safety Authority and European Commission). The results were discussed with scientific evidence criteria from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, International Olympic Committee, and International Society of Sports Nutrition, as well as the systematic review carried out by Mielgo-Ayuso in 2019.
Health claims in the commercial communications of a sample of CM supplements, in relation to current legislation and scientific knowledge.
A total of 554 CM products were obtained.
Of the total sample, only 167 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Of these, 30·5 % recommended a CM dose of 5·0–5·9 g/d, while 29·9 % recommended 3·0 to 3·9 g/d. As for the health claims, ‘Enhances physical performance’ appeared in 73·1 % of the supplements, in most cases referring to a dosage of 3·0 to 3·9 g/d for these products. The rest of the declarations were not adequate or needed to be modified.
Only 25 % of the health claims complied with the criteria established by the scientific reference documents. Most of the declarations must be modified or eliminated, as they could be considered fraudulent and/or misleading for the consumer.
To assess the association between pregestational BMI and offspring’s risk of overweight/obesity after accounting for the most important confounders, especially maternal smoking habit.
Prospective cohort study.
The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) study is a prospective cohort of Spanish graduates with more than 22 000 participants nationwide. Recruitment started in 1999, and it is permanently open. Data on diet, lifestyle and clinical diagnoses are collected at baseline and every 2 years.
Women from the SUN cohort who reported at least one pregnancy during follow-up (n 3496) were invited to this study. Among them, 1527 agreed to participate and completed an additional more detailed online questionnaire on their pregnancy history and their offspring’s nutritional status.
After excluding 165 children, we analysed data of 2791 participants born to 1485 mothers and observed that each 5 kg/m2 increase in pregestational BMI was associated with a 0·22 (95 % CI 0·15, 0·29) higher z-score in offspring’s BMI and higher risk of overweight/obesity (multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) 1·57 (95 % CI 1·39, 1·77)) in childhood or adolescence. Furthermore, we observed stronger association in children born to smoker mothers (RR 1·91; 95 % CI 1·48, 2·46) than from non-smoker mothers (RR 1·51; 95 % CI 1·31, 1·73) (Pfor interaction = 0·02).
We found a synergistic interaction between pregestational BMI and maternal smoking habit on offspring’s z-score of the BMI and in their risk of overweight/obesity. Although further research is needed to analyse dose–response relationships, these findings reinforce the importance of promoting healthy lifestyles in pregnant women in order to prevent childhood obesity.
Telomere integrity is influenced by oxidative stress. Also, inflammation-related factors, including nutritional factors, could modulate telomere integrity. The relationship between a posteriori-derived dietary patterns and telomere length (TL) has been scarcely investigated. Thus, our objective was to examine the association between empirically derived dietary patterns ascertained through principal component analysis (PCA) and TL in an older adult Spanish population. A total of 886 older adults (>55 years old; 645 males and 241 females) from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort were included in the study. TL was measured by monochrome multiplex real-time quantitative PCR. Age-adjusted TL was used for all analyses. Dietary patterns were identified by PCA based on thirty predefined candidate food groups collected from a validated 136-food items frequency questionnaire. Generalised linear models were fitted to obtain β-coefficients and their 95 % CI evaluating differences in TL between each of the four upper quintiles of adherence to dietary patterns and the lowest quintile. Sensitivity analyses by rerunning all multiple linear models under different stratifications were performed to evaluate the robustness of our results. Two major dietary patterns were empirically identified, Western dietary pattern (WDP) and Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP). After adjustment for potential confounders, longer TL was found among subjects in the highest quintile of MDP (β = 0·064; 95 % CI 0·004, 0·123). The WDP showed no significant association with TL. In conclusion, higher adherence to a posteriori-derived MDP was independently associated with longer telomeres in an older adult Spanish population of the SUN project.
The global growing rates of cognitive decline and dementia, together with the absence of curative therapies for these conditions, support the interest in researching potential primary prevention interventions, with particular focus on dietary habits. The aim was to assess the association between polyphenol intake and 6-year change in cognitive function in the ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) Project, a Spanish prospective cohort study. Changes (final – initial) in cognitive function were evaluated in a subsample of 806 participants (mean age 66 (sd 5) years, 69·7 % male) of the SUN Project using the validated Spanish Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified score. Polyphenol intake was derived from a validated semi-quantitative FFQ and matching food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between total polyphenol intake, polyphenol subclasses and cognitive changes. No significant association between total polyphenol intake and changes in cognitive function was found. However, a higher intake of lignans (βQuintile (Q) 5 v. Q1 0·81; 95 % CI 0·12, 1·51; Ptrend = 0·020) and stilbenes (βQ5 v. Q1 0·82; 95 % CI 0·15, 1·49; Ptrend = 0·028) was associated with more favourable changes in cognitive function over time, particularly with respect to immediate memory and language domains. Olive oil and nuts were the major sources of variability in lignan intake, and wine in stilbene intake. The results suggest that lignan and stilbene intake was associated with improvements in cognitive function.
Unwanted loneliness is a public health issue due to its high prevalence among elderly people (20-40%) and its relation with morbidity and mortality. There is no clear strategy for addressing this problem given the diversity of needs and resources people with feelings of loneliness have.
Identify the needs and resources of elderly people with chronic conditions and feelings of loneliness by comparing the patient’s outlook with that of their primary healthcare professional.
Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive pilot study using theoretical convenience sampling at 5 health facilities in Barcelona (Spain), performed between October and May 2020. Of 159 people selected, 42 were identified to have feelings of loneliness (UCLA < 30) who agreed to participate in the study and their care needs were analysed using the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE) questionnaire. A descriptive and comparative analysis (Kappa coefficient and discrepancy percentage) of needs was performed using the outlook of the patients and their healthcare professionals. Data was analysed using SAS assuming a 5% significance level. A qualitative analysis was also performed to understand the relation between the feeling of loneliness and needs across 24 care areas (environmental, social, psychological, and physical). The study was approved by the IDIAP Jordi Gol Healthcare Ethics Committee (19/138-P).
The needs perceived focused on physical health, distress, companionship, and relationships (30% to 41.7%). Professionals showed a severe lack of knowledge regarding housing, home care, relationships, and social services (22% to 48%). The qualitative analysis revealed the relation between the feeling of loneliness and the irreversible losses of those close to the patient, along with insufficient support and understanding during the aging process, and feelings of abandonment and guilt. Meanwhile, other notable aspects include the need of independence and resistance towards starting activities requiring commitment and travel. Caring for others and mobility and sensory restrictions act as extra barriers.
This study enables the needs of people with feelings of loneliness to be identified. Discrepancies between them and their healthcare professionals were recorded, in turn providing direction regarding which areas need to be improved when designing patient-focused primary healthcare approaches.
To assess whether higher adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was associated with lower consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and lower free sugar intake.
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline information among participants in the SENDO project, a Spanish paediatric cohort. Dietary information was collected through a semi-quantitative FFQ. Food items were classified according to the NOVA classification. Adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated through the KIDMED index.
Three hundred eight-six children (52 % boys) with a mean age of 5·3 years old (sd 1·0) were included in the analysis.
74·4 % of the children had moderate adherence to the MedDiet (mean KIDMED score: 5·9 points; sd 1·7) and overall, 32·2 % of the total energy intake came from UPF. Each two additional points in the KIDMED score was associated with 3·1 % (95 % CI 2·1, 4·0) lower energy intake from UPF. Compared to those with low adherence to the MedDiet, children with medium and high adherence reported 5·0 % (95 % CI 2·2, 7·7) and 8·5 % (95 % CI 5·2, 11·9) lower energy intake from UPF, respectively. We also found that 71·6 % of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability in UPF consumption.
Adherence to the traditional MedDiet was inversely associated with energy intake from UPF. Furthermore, most of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability of UPF consumption. Public health strategies are needed to strengthen the adherence to the MedDiet in pre-schoolers while regulating the production, marketing and advertising of UPF.
Catholicism and Protestantism have different ways of promoting the family unit that could influence survival and fertility at a population level. Parish records in the Austrian village of Hallstatt allowed the reconstruction of Catholic and Protestant genealogies over a period of 175 years (1733–1908) to evaluate how religion and social changes affected reproduction and survival. Life history traits such as lifespan beyond 15 years, number of offspring, reproductive span, children born out of wedlock and child mortality were estimated in 5678 Catholic and 3282 Protestant individuals. The interaction of sex, time and religion was checked through non-parametric factorial ANOVAs. Religion and time showed statistically significant interactions with lifespan >15 years, number of offspring and age at birth of first child. Protestants lived longer, had a larger reproductive span and an earlier age at birth of first child. Before the famine crisis of 1845–1850, Protestants showed lower values of childhood mortality than Catholics. Comparison of the number of children born out of wedlock revealed small differences between the two religions. Religion influenced reproduction and survival, as significant differences were found between Catholics and Protestants. This influence could be explained in part by differential socioeconomic characteristics, since Protestants may have enjoyed better living and sanitary conditions in Hallstatt.
To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain.
We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case.
We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8–6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0–6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2–0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2–0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age.
The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8–6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.
Lifestyles are involved in the pathogenesis of depression and many of these factors can be modified for the potential prevention of depression. Our aim was to assess the association between a healthy-lifestyle score, that includes some less-studied lifestyle indicators, and the risk of depression.
We followed 14,908 participants initially free of any history of depression in the “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort. Information was collected biennially from 1999 to December 2016. We calculated a healthy-lifestyle score (0–10 points), previously associated with cardioprotection, by giving one point to each of the following components: never smoking, physical activity (> 20 METs-h/week), Mediterranean diet adherence (≥ 4 points), healthy body mass index (≤ 22 kg/m2), moderate alcohol consumption (women 0.1–5 g/d; men 0.1–10 g/d of ethanol), avoidance of binge drinking (never more than 5 alcoholic drinks in a row), low television exposure (≤ 2 h/d), short afternoon nap (≤ 30 min/day), time spent with friends (>1 h/d) and working at least 40 h/week.
During a median follow-up of 10.4 years, we observed 774 new cases of major depression among participants initially free of depression. The highest category (8–10 factors) showed a significant inverse association with a 32% relative risk reduction for depression compared to the lowest category (0–3 factors) (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio: 0.68; 95% CI:0.49-0.95) (p for trend = 0.010).
Adopting a healthy-lifestyle was associated with a lower risk of incident depression in the SUN cohort. This index, including ten simple healthy lifestyle habits, may be useful for a more integrative approach to depression prevention.
It is crucial to identify people at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to implement preventive interventions in order to address these pandemics. A simple score exclusively based on dietary components, the Dietary-Based Diabetes-Risk Score (DDS) showed a strong inverse association with incident T2DM. The objective was to assess the association between DDS and the risk of GDM in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ project is a prospective and dynamic cohort which included data of 3455 women who notified pregnancies between 1999 and 2012. The diagnosis of GDM is self-reported and further confirmed by physicians. A validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ was used to assess pre-gestational dietary habits. The development of the DDS was aimed to quantify the association between the adherence to this a priori dietary score and T2DM incidence. The score exclusively included dietary components (nine food groups with reported inverse associations with T2DM incidence and three food groups which reported direct associations with T2DM). Three categories of adherence to the DDS were assessed: low (11–24), intermediate (25–39) and high (40–60). The upper category showed an independent inverse association with the risk of incident GDM compared with the lowest category (multivariate-adjusted OR 0·48; 95 % CI 0·24, 0·99; P for linear trend: 0·01). Several sensitivity analyses supported the robustness of these results. These results reinforce the importance of pre-gestational dietary habits for reducing GDM and provide a brief tool to practically assess the relevant dietary habits in clinical practice.
This study examined (1) the association of dietary energy density from solid (EDS) and solid plus liquids (EDSL) with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk factors (CRF) in children with overweight and obesity, (2) the effect of under-reporting on the mentioned associations and (3) whether the association between ED and body composition and CRF is influenced by levels of physical activity. In a cross-sectional design, 208 overweight and obese children (8–12-year-old; 111 boys) completed two non-consecutive 24 h recalls. ED was calculated using two different approaches: EDS and EDSL. Under-reporters were determined with the Goldberg method. Body composition, anthropometry and fasting blood sample measurements were performed. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was registered with accelerometers (7-d-register). Linear regressions were performed to evaluate the association of ED with the previously mentioned variables. Neither EDS nor EDSL were associated with body composition or CRF. However, when under-reporters were excluded, EDS was positively associated with BMI (P=0·019), body fat percentage (P=0·005), abdominal fat (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·018), while EDSL was positively associated with body fat percentage (P=0·008) and fat mass index (P=0·026). When stratifying the group according to physical activity recommendations, the aforementioned associations were only maintained for non-compliers. Cluster analysis showed that the low-ED and high-MVPA group presented the healthiest profile for all adiposity and CRF. These findings could partly explain inconsistencies in literature, as we found that different ED calculations entail distinct results. Physical activity levels and excluding under-reporters greatly influence the associations between ED and adiposity in children with overweight and obesity.
Polyphenols are a wide family of phytochemicals present in diverse foods. They might play a role in cancer development and progression. In vivo and in vitro studies have suggested beneficial properties and potential mechanisms. We aimed to evaluate the association between total and main classes of polyphenol intake and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project – a prospective Mediterranean cohort study. We included 10 713 middle-aged, Spanish female university graduates. Polyphenol intake was derived from a semi-quantitative FFQ and matching food consumption data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Women with self-reported BC were asked to return a copy of their medical report for confirmation purposes; death certificates were used for fatal cases. Cox models were fitted to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for the association between tertiles (T) of polyphenol intake and BC. After 10·3 years of median follow-up, 168 probable incident BC cases were identified, out of which 100 were confirmed. We found no association between polyphenol intake and the overall BC risk. Nevertheless, we observed a significant inverse association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk for postmenopausal women, either for probable or only for confirmed cases (HRT3 v. T1 0·31 (95 % CI 0·13, 0·77; Ptrend=0·010)). Also, phenolic acid intake was inversely associated with postmenopausal BC. In summary, we observed no significant association between total polyphenol intake and BC risk. Despite a low number of incident BC cases in our cohort, higher total polyphenol intake was associated with a lower risk of postmenopausal BC.
Magnesium (Mg2+) has received considerable attention with regards to its potential role in the pathophysiology of the mood disorders, but the available evidence seems inconclusive.
To review and quantitatively summarise the human literature on Mg2+ intake and Mg2+ blood levels in the mood disorders and the effects of Mg2+ supplements on mood.
Systematic review and meta-analyses.
Adherence to a Mg2+-rich diet was negatively associated with depression in cross-sectional (odds ratio = 0.66) but not in prospective studies. Mg2+ levels in bodily fluids were on average higher in patients with a mood disorder (Hedge's g = 0.19), but only in patients treated with antidepressants and/or mood stabilisers. There was no evident association between Mg2+ levels and symptom severity. Mg2+ supplementation was associated with a decline in depressive symptoms in uncontrolled (g = −1.60) but not in placebo-controlled trials (g = −0.21).
Our results provide little evidence for the involvement of Mg2+ in the mood disorders.
A large collection of maize macro-specimens has been gathered from archaeological sites across the American continent, but only a few have been directly dated by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). We recently conducted two new excavations in several rock shelters of Tehuacán valley (San Marcos, Coxcatlán, and Purrón) and uncovered 132 non-manipulated macro-specimens of maize suitable for morphological and paleogenomic analysis, including many complete cobs, stalks, internodes, and leaves. Direct AMS dates for 43 samples found in San Marcos or Coxcatlán confirm the previously reported chronologies for these sites. By contrast, a cob found in Purrón was dated to 3060±30 before present (3360–3180 cal BP) (2σ), demonstrating that maize was present at that site at least 1500 calendar years earlier than previously expected, and suggesting that other specimens of similar age are still likely to be found in the southeastern region of the Tehuacán valley. A global comparison of macro-specimen chronology across the continent shows that the current archaebotanical record does not yet reflect the chronology of dispersal from central Mexico to northern or southern regions, opening the possibility for finding the missing links in subsequent expeditions within Mexico and Central America.
How food is produced and consumed has consequences for ecosystems, such as resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission among others. The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was proposed as a sustainable dietary model, due to its nutritional, environmental, economic and sociocultural dimensions. However, further evidence is needed. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the impact on resource (land, water and energy) use and GHG emission of better adherence to the MedDiet in a Mediterranean Spanish cohort.
We analysed the dietary pattern of participants through a validated FFQ. The outcomes were land use, water and energy consumption and GHG emission according to MedDiet adherence. The specific environmental footprints of food item production and processing were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments.
Spanish university graduates.
Participants (n 20 363) in the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort.
Better adherence to the MedDiet was associated with lower land use (−0·71 (95 % CI −0·76, −0·66) m2/d), water consumption (−58·88 (95 % CI −90·12, −27·64) litres/d), energy consumption (−0·86 (95 % CI −1·01, −0·70) MJ/d) and GHG emission (−0·73 (95 % CI −0·78, −0·69) kg CO2e/d). A statistically significant linear trend (P<0·05) was observed in all these analyses.
In this Mediterranean cohort, better adherence to the MedDiet was an eco-friendly option according to resource consumption and GHG emission.
The association between added sugars or sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of depression, as well as the role of carbohydrate quality in depression risk, remains unclear. Among 15 546 Spanish university graduates from the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) prospective cohort study, diet was assessed with a validated 136-item semi-quantitative FFQ at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. Cumulative average consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and an overall carbohydrate quality index (CQI) were calculated. A better CQI was associated with higher whole-grain consumption and fibre intake and lower glycaemic index and consumption of solid (instead of liquid) carbohydrates. Clinical diagnoses of depression during follow-up were classified as incident cases. Multivariable time-dependent Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of depression according to consumption of added sugars, sweetened drinks and CQI. We observed 769 incident cases of depression. Participants in the highest quartile of added sugars consumption showed a significant increment in the risk of depression (HR=1·35; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·67, P=0·034), whereas those in the highest quartile of CQI (upper quartile of the CQI) showed a relative risk reduction of 30 % compared with those in the lowest quartile of the CQI (HR=0·70; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·88). No significant association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and depression risk was found. Higher added sugars and lower quality of carbohydrate consumption were associated with depression risk in the SUN Cohort. Further studies are necessary to confirm the reported results.