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During the 4 years after implementation of the 2-step Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) testing algorithm, 70% to 78% of patients with suspected CDI and a positive nucleic acid amplification test but a negative toxin test (NAAT+/TOX−) received CDI treatment. Overall, 73% of NAAT+/TOX− patients were classified as having probable or possible CDI.
To investigate the frequency of environmental contamination in hospital areas outside patient rooms and in outpatient healthcare facilities.
This study was conducted across 4 hospitals, 4 outpatient clinics, and 1 surgery center.
We conducted 3 point-prevalence culture surveys for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Clostridioides difficile, Candida spp, and gram-negative bacilli including Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in each facility. In hospitals, high-touch surfaces were sampled from radiology, physical therapy, and mobile equipment and in emergency departments, waiting rooms, clinics, and endoscopy facilities. In outpatient facilities, surfaces were sampled in exam rooms including patient and provider areas, patient bathrooms, and waiting rooms and from portable equipment. Fluorescent markers were placed on high-touch surfaces and removal was assessed 1 day later.
In the hospitals, 110 (9.4%) of 1,195 sites were positive for 1 or more bacterial pathogens (range, 5.3%–13.7% for the 4 hospitals) and 70 (5.9%) were positive for Candida spp (range, 3.7%–5.9%). In outpatient facilities, 31 of 485 (6.4%) sites were positive for 1 or more bacterial pathogens (range, 2% to 14.4% for the 5 outpatient facilities) and 50 (10.3%) were positive for Candida spp (range, 3.9%–23.3%). Fluorescent markers had been removed from 33% of sites in hospitals (range, 28.4%–39.7%) and 46.3% of sites in outpatient clinics (range, 7.4%–82.8%).
Surfaces in hospitals outside patient rooms and in outpatient facilities are frequently contaminated with healthcare-associated pathogens. Improvements in cleaning and disinfection practices are needed to reduce contamination.
In a survey of hospitals and of patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), we found that most facilities had educational materials or protocols for education of CDI patients. However, approximately half of CDI patients did not recall receiving education during their admission, and knowledge deficits regarding CDI prevention were common.
In a tertiary-care hospital and affiliated long-term care facility, a stewardship intervention focused on patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) was associated with a significant reduction in unnecessary non-CDI antibiotic therapy. However, there was no significant reduction in total non-CDI therapy or in the frequency of CDI recurrence.
In a survey of patients with short-term indwelling urinary catheters, 47% were aware that catheters cause urinary tract infections, 89% believed that catheters were not overused, and 68% preferred catheter placement rather than use of a bedside commode, bedpan, or diaper. Patient education is needed regarding the risks of urinary catheters.
To test the hypothesis that antibiotic therapy may promote recurrence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) stool colonization in patients who have previously had three consecutive negative stool cultures obtained at least 1 week apart.
One-year prospective cohort study examining the effect of antibiotic therapy on recurrence and density of VRE stool colonization in patients who have cleared colonization. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine whether recurrent VRE strains were the same clone as the previous colonizing strain.
A Department of Veterans Affairs medical center including an acute care hospital and nursing home.
All patients with at least one stool culture positive for VRE who subsequently had three consecutive negative stool cultures obtained at least 1 week apart.
Of the 16 patients who cleared VRE colonization, 13 received antibiotic therapy during the study period. Eight (62%) of the 13 patients who received antibiotics developed recurrent high-density VRE stool colonization (range, 4.9 to 9.1 log10 colony-forming units per gram) during a course of therapy. Five patients had VRE strains available for PFGE analysis; recurrent strains were unrelated to the prior strain in 3 patients, closely related in 1 patient, and indistinguishable in 1 patient.
Antibiotic therapy may be associated with recurrent high-density VRE stool colonization in many patients who have previously had three consecutive negative stool cultures. These patients should be screened for recurrent stool colonization when antibiotic therapy is administered.
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