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Given the high prevalence (30–35%) of psychosocial and psychiatric morbidity amongst cancer patients in any phase of the disease trajectory, screening for emotional problems and disorders has become mandatory in oncology. As a process, screening begins at the entry to the cancer care system and continues at clinically meaningful times, periodically during active cancer care, or when clinically indicated. The goal is to facilitate proper referral to psychosocial oncology specialists for more specific assessment and care, as well as treatment and evaluation of the response, according to the implementation of distress management guidelines. In this editorial, we will provide a non-exhaustive overview of relevant protocols, with particular reference to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Distress Management in Oncology Guidelines, and review the challenges and the problems in implementing screening, and the assessment and management of psychosocial and psychiatric problems in cancer centres and community care.
Exercise is well known to be beneficial to physical health; however, increasing research indicates that physical exercise is also beneficial to brain health and may alleviate symptoms of mental disorders. This book, written by international experts, describes and explores the theory and practice of exercise intervention for different mental disorders across the life span. Drawing on evidence from basic neuroscience research, and enriched with findings from the latest clinical trials, the work provides clear descriptions of current practice and highlights ways to translate this knowledge into pragmatic advice for use in daily practice. The chapters cover a broad range of conditions including neurodevelopmental disorders, depression, anxiety, psychosis and late life neurocognitive disorders. This book is for mental health clinicians including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, as well as internists, paediatricians and geriatricians seeking a comprehensive and individualized approach to treatment.
Division V on Variable Stars consists of Commission 27, also called Variable Stars, and Commission 42, Close Binary Stars. The former deals with stars whose variations are intrinsic, whereas in the latter the variations are caused by the interactions between the components in the binary or multiple star system. There may be cases where the assignment of an object to one of the two Commissions may be in doubt. For example, the observation of pulsating stars in eclipsing binaries within nearby galaxies, or the relation between some types of oscillation modes and membership to binary systems, continue to be widely discussed.
The science of extra-solar planets is one of the most rapidly changing areas of astrophysics and since 1995 the number of planets known has increased by almost two orders of magnitude. A combination of ground-based surveys and dedicated space missions has resulted in 560-plus planets being detected, and over 1200 that await confirmation. NASA's Kepler mission has opened up the possibility of discovering Earth-like planets in the habitable zone around some of the 100,000 stars it is surveying during its 3 to 4-year lifetime. The new ESA's Gaia mission is expected to discover thousands of new planets around stars within 200 parsecs of the Sun. The key challenge now is moving on from discovery, important though that remains, to characterisation: what are these planets actually like, and why are they as they are?
In the past ten years, we have learned how to obtain the first spectra of exoplanets using transit transmission and emission spectroscopy. With the high stability of Spitzer, Hubble, and large ground-based telescopes the spectra of bright close-in massive planets can be obtained and species like water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and dioxide have been detected. With transit science came the first tangible remote sensing of these planetary bodies and so one can start to extrapolate from what has been learnt from Solar System probes to what one might plan to learn about their faraway siblings. As we learn more about the atmospheres, surfaces and near-surfaces of these remote bodies, we will begin to build up a clearer picture of their construction, history and suitability for life.
The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, EChO, will be the first dedicated mission to investigate the physics and chemistry of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. By characterising spectroscopically more bodies in different environments we will take detailed planetology out of the Solar System and into the Galaxy as a whole.
EChO has now been selected by the European Space Agency to be assessed as one of four M3 mission candidates.
To analyse the relationship between maternal intakes of fish and other seafood during pregnancy and child neurodevelopment at age 4 years. Although pregnant women are advised to limit seafood intakes because of possible neurotoxin contamination, several studies suggest that overall maternal seafood intakes are associated with improved child neurodevelopment, perhaps because of higher DHA intakes.
The study uses data from a prospective birth cohort study. Maternal seafood intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative FFQ administered shortly after delivery. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between seafood consumption and scores on the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities (MCSA). Analyses were stratified by breast-feeding duration as breast milk is a source of DHA during the postnatal phase of the brain growth spurt.
Menorca, Spain, 1997–2001.
Full-term children (n 392) with data on maternal diet in pregnancy, breast-feeding duration and neurodevelopment at age 4 years.
Among children breast-fed for <6 months, maternal fish intakes of >2–3 times/week were associated with significantly higher scores on several MCSA subscales compared with intakes ≤1 time/week. There was no association among children breast-fed for longer periods. Maternal intakes of other seafood (shellfish/squid) were, however, inversely associated with scores on several subscales, regardless of breast-feeding duration.
The study suggests that moderately high intakes of fish, but not other seafood, during pregnancy may be beneficial for neurodevelopment among children breast-fed for <6 months. Further research in other populations with high seafood intakes and data on additional potential confounders are needed to confirm this finding.
At the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 2003, a questionnaire on the perception of participation of “young astronomers” at IAU meeting was distributed. Following the conclusions from the analysis of this questionnaire, the IAU EC recommended in 2004 that the “young astronomers” concept at the next GA in Prague should be worked out with specific activities.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is a medical specialty society that represents nearly 36 000 psychiatrists from the United States and Canada, as well as around the globe. It is the longest serving medical specialty society. As a leader in the mental health field, the APA continually supports the diagnosis and treatment of patients with mental illnesses, including substance use disorders, and also supports prevention and research. The APA acts as an advocate for psychiatrists and their patients.
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