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This study evaluated whether the Family Bereavement Program (FBP), a prevention program for parentally bereaved families, improved parenting attitudes toward parental warmth and physical punishment in young adult offspring 15 years after participation and identified mediational cascade pathways. One hundred fifty-six parents and their 244 offspring participated. Data were collected at pretest (ages 8–16), posttest, and six- and 15-year follow-ups. Ethnicity of offspring was: 67% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 16% Hispanic, 7% African American, 3% Native American, 1% Asian or Pacific Islander, and 6% other; 54% were males. There was a direct effect of the FBP on attitudes toward physical punishment; offspring in the FBP had less favorable attitudes toward physical punishment. There were also indirect effects of the FBP on parenting attitudes. The results supported a cascade effects model in which intervention-induced improvements in parental warmth led to fewer externalizing problems in adolescence/emerging adulthood, which in turn led to less favorable attitudes toward physical punishment. In addition, intervention-induced improvements in parental warmth led to improvements in anxious romantic attachment in mid-to-late adolescence/emerging adulthood, which led to more favorable attitudes toward parental warmth in emerging/young adulthood. These findings suggest that the effects of relatively brief prevention programs may persist into subsequent generations.
Despite three decades of research, gaps remain in meeting the needs of people with dementia and their family/friend carers as they navigate the often-tumultuous process of driving cessation. This paper describes the process of using a knowledge-to-action (KTA) approach to develop an educational web-based resource (i.e. toolkit), called the Driving and Dementia Roadmap (DDR), aimed at addressing some of these gaps.
Aligned with the KTA framework, knowledge creation and action cycle activities informed the development of the DDR. These activities included systematic reviews; meta-synthesis of qualitative studies; interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders; development of a Driving and Dementia Intervention Framework (DD-IF); and a review and curation of publicly available resources and tools. An Advisory Group comprised of people with dementia and family carers provided ongoing feedback on the DDR’s content and design.
The DDR is a multi-component online toolkit that contains separate portals for current and former drivers with dementia and their family/friend carers. Based on the DD-IF, various topics of driving cessation are presented to accommodate users’ diverse stages and needs in their experiences of decision-making and transitioning to non-driving.
Guided by the KTA framework that involved a systematic and iterative process of knowledge creation and translation, the resulting person-centered, individualized and flexible DDR can bring much-needed support to help people with dementia and their families maintain their mobility, community access, and social and emotional wellbeing during and post-driving cessation.
The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated gender disparities in some academic disciplines. This study examined the association of the pandemic with gender authorship disparities in clinical neuropsychology (CN) journals.
Author bylines of 1,018 initial manuscript submissions to four major CN journals from March 15 through September 15 of both 2019 and 2020 were coded for binary gender. Additionally, authorship of 40 articles published on pandemic-related topics (COVID-19, teleneuropsychology) across nine CN journals were coded for binary gender.
Initial submissions to these four CN journals increased during the pandemic (+27.2%), with comparable increases in total number of authors coded as either women (+23.0%) or men (+25.4%). Neither the average percentage of women on manuscript bylines nor the proportion of women who were lead and/or corresponding authors differed significantly across time. Moreover, the representation of women as authors of pandemic-related articles did not differ from expected frequencies in the field.
Findings suggest that representation of women as authors of peer-reviewed manuscript submissions to some CN journals did not change during the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies might examine how risk and protective factors may have influenced individual differences in scientific productivity during the pandemic.
Public health messages and societal discourse during the COVID-19 pandemic have consistently indicated a higher morbidity and mortality risk for older people, particularly those with multiple health conditions. Older adults’ interpretations of pandemic messaging can shape their perceived vulnerability and behaviours. This study examined their perspectives on COVID-19 messaging. Eighteen community-dwelling older adults residing in Manitoba (Canada) participated in semi-structured telephone interviews between July and August 2020, a period of low COVID-19 cases within the province. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify key themes that described participants’ processes of information interpretation when consuming pandemic-related messages, their emotional responses to messaging and consequent vulnerability, and the impacts of messaging on their everyday lives. Understanding how older adults have construed COVID-19 and pandemic-related messages, and the subsequent impact on their daily behaviours, is the first step towards shaping societal discourse and sets the stage for examining the pandemic’s long-term effects.
Upper body and neck range of motion (ROM) are important for safe walking and driving. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stretching would improve neck, trunk, and shoulder ROM. Forty-eight community-dwelling women (75 ± 3 years of age) were randomly allocated to intervention (upper body stretching, n = 15) and control conditions (lower body power training, n = 33). All participants exercised in supervised 45-minute sessions twice weekly for 12 weeks. Testing of upper body ROM included a cervical ROM, device-based measurement and field tests of the neck, trunk, and shoulder ranges. Shoulder ROM was the only movement that improved in the intervention group beyond levels seen in control participants (33% increase, p < 0.01). Neck and trunk ROM did not change in response to a specific stretching program. Older adults with ROM limitations may need to explore other exercise options or focus on compensatory strategies for safe community mobility.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether vehicle type based on size (car vs. other = truck/van/SUV) had an impact on the speeding, acceleration, and braking patterns of older male and female drivers (70 years and older) from a Canadian longitudinal study. The primary hypothesis was that older adults driving larger vehicles (e.g., trucks, SUVs, or vans) would be more likely to speed than those driving cars. Participants (n = 493) had a device installed in their vehicles that recorded their everyday driving. The findings suggest that the type of vehicle driven had little or no impact on per cent of time speeding or on the braking and accelerating patterns of older drivers. Given that the propensity for exceeding the speed limit was high among these older drivers, regardless of vehicle type, future research should examine what effect this behaviour has on older-driver road safety.
Literature is lacking to guide standardised care and assessment practices for paediatric patients post cardiac catheterisation. In response to this gap, we sought to describe the current state of practice in cardiology programmes performing paediatric cardiac catheterisations procedures in the United States of America.
Materials and methods
A web-based survey was distributed to the Congenital Cardiovascular Interventional Study Consortium Listserv, with representation from 113 identified institutions. A 36-question survey, including fixed-choice and open-ended questions, was developed and piloted for reliability and validity before distribution. Data were summarised descriptively with count and frequency or median and range.
Of the 113 identified institutions, 52% (n=59) responded to the survey. Manual pressure is used to achieve haemostasis by 94.9% of the respondents. Pressure dressings are used by a majority of the facilities and the length of time for bed rest is variable, with the majority using 6 hours for arterial access and 4 hours for venous access. Predominantly, respondents use the time of haemostasis as the start time of bed rest while a third of respondents reported using the time the sheath was removed.
In this study, variation in a number of post catheterisation care and assessment practices for paediatric patients was noted across cardiology programmes. Information from this assessment identifies key opportunities to collaborate in developing standardised practices for the care and assessment of the paediatric patients post catheterisation.
We examined the relations between perceived health (e.g., self-perceived health status) and driving self-regulatory practices (e.g., frequency of driving, avoiding challenging driving situations) as mediated by driving attitudes and perceptions (i.e., driving comfort, positive and negative attitudes towards driving) in data collected for 928 drivers aged 70 and older enrolled in the Candrive II study. We observed that specific attitudes towards driving (e.g., driving comfort, negative attitudes towards driving) mediate the relations between health symptoms and self-regulatory driving behaviours at baseline and over time. Only negative attitudes towards driving fully mediated the relationships between changes in perceived health symptoms and changes in driving behavior. Perceived health symptoms apparently influence the likelihood of avoiding challenging driving situations through both initial negative attitudes towards driving as well as changes in negative attitudes over time. Understanding influences on self-regulatory driving behaviours will be of benefit when designing interventions to enhance the safety of older drivers.
We investigated whether convenience sampling is a suitable method to generate a sample of older drivers representative of the older-Canadian driver population. Using equivalence testing, we compared a large convenience sample of older drivers (Candrive II prospective cohort study) to a similarly aged population of older Canadian drivers. The Candrive sample consists of 928 community-dwelling older drivers from seven metropolitan areas of Canada. The population data was obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey – Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA), which is a representative sample of older Canadians. The data for drivers aged 70 and older were extracted from the CCHS-HA database, for a total of 3,899 older Canadian drivers. Two samples were demonstrated as equivalent on socio-demographic, health, and driving variables that we compared, but not on driving frequency. We conclude that convenience sampling used in the Candrive study created a fairly representative sample of Canadian older drivers, with a few exceptions.
It is unclear whether cryoablation or radiofrequency ablation offers better value for treating atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia in children. We aimed to compare the value of these procedures for treating atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia in children, with value being outcomes relative to costs.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of all atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia ablations for children (age⩽18 years) from July, 2009 to June, 2011 at our institution. Costs included fixed costs, miscellaneous hospital costs, and labour costs, and key outcomes were acute and long-term success (6 months) of the ablations. We conducted T-tests and regression analyses to investigate the associations between the ablation procedure type and the cost and success of the ablations.
Of 96 unique cases performed by three paediatric electrophysiologists, 48 were cryoablation only, 42 radiofrequency ablation only, and six were a combination. Acute success was 100% for the cryoablation only and radiofrequency ablation only cases and 83% for the combination cases. There were no notable adverse events. The average total cost was $9636 for cryoablation cases, $9708 for radiofrequency ablation cases, and $10,967 for combination cases (p=0.51 for cryoablation only versus radiofrequency ablation only). The long-term success rate was 79.1% for cryoablation only, 92.8% for radiofrequency ablation only, and 66.7% for the combination (p=0.01 for cryoablation only versus radiofrequency ablation only), but long-term success varied notably by provider.
Cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation offer similar value in the short term for the treatment of atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia in children. Differences in long-term success may vary substantially by physician, and thus may lead to differences in long-term value.
In this study, we examined the Candrive baseline data (n = 928; aged 70 to 94; 62% were men) to determine whether driver characteristics (i.e., age, gender, height, weight, BMI) and certain functional abilities (i.e., Rapid Paced Walk, Timed Up and Go) influenced the types of vehicles driven. There were significant differences with respect to type of vehicle and mean driver age (F = 3.58, p = 0.003), height, (F = 13.32, p < 0.001), weight (F = 14.31, p < 0.001), and BMI (F = 4.40, p = 0.001). A greater proportion of drivers with osteoporosis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) and osteo/rheumatoid arthritis (χ2 = 21.23, p = 0.020) drove small and medium-sized cars compared to larger ones. Further research is needed to examine older driver-vehicle interactions, and the relationship to demographics and functional abilities, given the vulnerability of this age group to automotive-related injuries.
The purpose of this study was to determine if season or weather affected the objectively measured trip distances of older drivers (≥ 70 years; n = 279) at seven Canadian sites. During winter, for all trips taken, trip distance was 7 per cent shorter when controlling for site and whether the trip occurred during the day. In addition, for trips taken within city limits, trip distance was 1 per cent shorter during winter and 5 per cent longer during rain when compared to no precipitation when controlling for weather (or season respectively), time of day, and site. At night, trip distance was about 30 per cent longer when controlling for season and site (and weather), contrary to expectations. Together, these results suggest that older Canadian drivers alter their trip distances based on season, weather conditions, and time of day, although not always in the expected direction.
We hypothesized that changes over time in cognitive performance are associated with changes in driver perceptions, attitudes, and self-regulatory behaviors among older adults. Healthy older adults (n = 928) underwent cognitive assessments at baseline with two subsequent annual follow-ups, and completed scales regarding their perceptions, attitudes, and driving behaviours. Multivariate analysis showed small but statistically significant relationships between the cognitive tests and self-report measures, with the largest magnitudes between scores on the Trails B cognitive task (seconds), perceptions of driving abilities (β = –0.32), and situational driving avoidance (β = 0.55) (p < 0.05). Cognitive slowing and executive dysfunction appear to be associated with modestly lower perceived driving abilities and more avoidance of driving situations over time in this exploratory analysis.
To date, associations between psychosocial driving variables and behaviour have been examined only cross-sectionally. Using three waves of data collected annually from 928 older drivers (mean age = 76.21 years; 62% male) enrolled in the Candrive II cohort, we examined in this study whether changes in attitudes and perceptions towards driving (decisional balance and day and night driving comfort) were associated with changes in older adults’ reported restrictions in driving practices and perceived driving abilities. Multi-level models revealed that older adults who showed an increase in negative attitudes towards driving over time were more likely to report more-restricted practices (greater avoidance of challenging driving situations) and perceived declines in driving abilities compared to individuals whose attitudes towards driving remained stable across two years. This work supports previous findings and offers a new understanding of how attitudes relate to driving perceptions (e.g., comfort) and self-regulation in older adults over time.
Evidence shows that the health of the work environment impacts staff satisfaction, interdisciplinary communication, and patient outcomes. Utilising the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses’ Healthy Work Environment standards, we developed a daily assessment tool.
The Relative Environment Assessment Lens (REAL) Indicator was developed using a consensus-based method to evaluate the health of the work environment and to identify opportunities for improvement from the front-line staff. A visual scale using images that resemble emoticons was linked with a written description of feelings about their work environment that day, with the highest number corresponding to the most positive experience. Face validity was established by seeking staff feedback and goals were set.
Over 10 months, results from the REAL Indicator in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory indicated an overall good work environment. The goal of 80% of the respondents reporting their work environment to be “Great”, “Good”, or “Satisfactory” was met each month. During the same time frame, this goal was met four times in the cardiovascular operating room. On average, 72.7% of cardiovascular operating room respondents reported their work environment to be “Satisfactory” or better.
The REAL Indicator has become a valuable tool in assessing the specific issues of the clinical area and identifying opportunities for improvement. Given the feasibility of and positive response to this tool in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory, it has been adopted in other patient-care areas where staff and leaders believe that they need to understand the health of the environment in a more specific and frequent time frame.
Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although, it is not the major reason for intensive care unit admissions during pregnancy, several physiological changes that occur during pregnancy limit the ability of the pregnant woman to compensate for the derangements produced by severe sepsis, often resulting in severe organ dysfunction. Moreover, there are several disorders peculiar to the pregnant state, including preeclampsia, placental abruption, amniotic fluid embolism and postpartum haemorrhage, all of which can produce potentially life-threatening organ failure and may be present concurrently with sepsis contributing to maternal mortality. Evidence-based guidelines advocate assessment and monitoring aimed at early recognition and treatment of sepsis. Early goal-directed therapy, adequate blood glucose control, and corticosteroid replacement when indicated are improving outcomes in patients with severe sepsis, although most of these have not been validated in pregnancy.
A major problem in establishing effective protocols for conserving Madagascar's biodiversity is the lack of reliable information for the identification of priority sites in need of protection. Analyses of field data and information from herbarium collections for members of the plant family Pandanaceae (85 spp. of Pandanus; 6 spp. of Martellidendron) showed how risk of extinction assessments can inform conservation planning. Application of IUCN Red List categories and criteria showed that 91% of the species are threatened. Mapping occurrence revealed centres of richness and rarity as well as gaps in Madagascar's existing protected area network. Protection of 10 additional sites would be required to encompass the 19 species currently lacking representation in the reserve network, within which east coast littoral forests are particularly under represented and important. The effect of scale on assessments of risk of extinction was explored by applying different grid cell sizes to estimate area of occupancy. Using a grid cell size within the range suggested by IUCN overestimates threatened status if based solely upon specimen data. For poorly inventoried countries such as Madagascar measures of range size based on such data should be complemented with field observations to determine population size, sensitivity to disturbance, and specific threats to habitat and therefore potential population decline. The analysis of such data can make an important contribution to the conservation planning process by identifying threatened species and revealing the highest priority sites for their conservation.