To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Low glycaemic index (LGI) foods have been proposed as potential means to decrease postprandial glucose excursions and thus to improve diabetes management. We modulated glucose availability of cereal products and thus their glycaemic index to study the metabolic effect of LGI foods on daylong glucose control acutely and in the long term following a 5-week GI intervention diet in free-living subjects. In this randomised, parallel trial, two groups of nineteen overweight subjects followed an ad libitum 5-week intervention diet in which usual starch was replaced by either LGI or high GI (HGI) starch. During the exploration days (days 1 and 36), subjects ate their assigned 13C-labelled test breakfast (LGI or HGI), and total and exogenous glucose kinetics (using stable isotopes), postprandial concentrations of glucose, insulin, lipid profile and nutrient oxidation were assessed after the test breakfast and a standardised lunch. At day 1, LGI breakfast significantly decreased post-breakfast glycaemic response with a parallel decrease in exogenous and total glucose appearance (P < 0·05). Post-lunch and post-breakfast glycaemic responses were positively correlated (r 0·79, P < 0·0001). Following the 5-week diet, difference between the groups in terms of glucose kinetics and response was maintained (no significant interaction group × time) but tended to decrease over time for the post-breakfast glycaemic response. Post-lunch and post-breakfast glycaemic responses remained positively correlated (r 0·47, P = 0·004). Modulation of postprandial glucose availability at breakfast decreased plasma exogenous glucose appearance and improved glucose control at the subsequent lunch. After 5 weeks, these effects were maintained in healthy subjects but remained to be confirmed in the longer term.
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a group of positional and geometric isomers of conjugated dienoic derivatives of linoleic acid. The present study was designed to determine whether 14-week CLA supplementation as triacylglycerols (3·76 g) with a 50 : 50 combination of the two main isomers (35 % cis-9, trans-11 and 35 % trans-10, cis-12) added to flavoured yoghurt-like products was able to alter body composition in healthy subjects and to alter the expression of several key adipose tissue genes (PPAR γ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2)). Forty-four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to consume daily either a CLA-supplemented yoghurt-like product or a placebo yoghurt for 98 d. There were no significant effects of CLA supplementation on body weight, fat mass or free fat mass. Basal energy expenditure expressed as kg free fat mass increased significantly in the CLA group (123·3 (sem 2·5) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 98 v. 118·7 (sem 2·3) kJ/kg free fat mass per d on day 0, P = 0·03). PPAR γ mRNA gene expression increased significantly with CLA supplementation (53 (sem 20) %, P < 0·01) and a significant reduction in mRNA levels of HSL was observed ( − 42 (sem 7) %, P = 0·01). The levels of UCP-2 and LPL mRNA were not affected. The present results suggest that a 98 d supplementation diet with a 50 : 50 mixture of the two CLA isomers cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 in a dairy product was unable to alter body composition, although a significant increase in the RMR has been induced. Moreover, changes in mRNA PPAR γ and HSL in adipose tissue were recorded.
The present study evaluates the influence of different amounts of fat added to starch on postprandial glucose metabolism (exogenous and endogenous). Nine women (24 (SE 2) YEARS OLD, BMI 20·4 (se 0·7) kg/m2) ingested 1 week apart 75 g glucose equivalent of 13C-labelled starch in the form of pasta without (low fat; LF) or with 15 (medium fat; MF) or 40 (high fat; HF) g sunflower oil. During the 7 h following meal consumption, plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, triacylglycerols (TG) and insulin concentrations, and endogenous (using [6,6-2H2]glucose) and exogenous glucose turnover were determined. With MF and HF meals, a lower postprandial glucose peak was observed, but with a secondary recovery. A decrease in exogenous glucose appearance explained lower glycaemia in HF. At 4 h after the HF meal the insulin, insulin:glucose and postprandial blood TG were higher than those measured after the LF and MF meals. Despite higher insulinaemia, total glucose disappearance was similar and endogenous glucose production was suppressed less than after the LF and MF meals, suggesting insulin resistance. Thus, the addition of a large amount of fat appears to be unfavourable to glucose metabolism because it leads to a feature of insulin resistance. On the contrary, the MF meal did not have these adverse effects, but it was able to decrease the initial glycaemic peak.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.