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To determine antibiotic prescribing appropriateness for respiratory tract diagnoses (RTD) by season.
Retrospective cohort study.
Primary care practices in a university health system.
Patients who were seen at an office visit with diagnostic code for RTD.
Office visits for the entire cohort were categorized based on ICD-10 codes by the likelihood that an antibiotic was indicated (tier 1: always indicated; tier 2: sometimes indicated; tier 3: rarely indicated). Medical records were reviewed for 1,200 randomly selected office visits to determine appropriateness. Based on this reference standard, metrics and prescriber characteristics associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing were determined. Characteristics of antibiotic prescribing were compared between winter and summer months.
A significantly greater proportion of RTD visits had an antibiotic prescribed in winter [20,558/51,090 (40.2%)] compared to summer months [11,728/38,537 (30.4%)][standardized difference (SD) = 0.21]. A significantly greater proportion of winter compared to summer visits was associated with tier 2 RTDs (29.4% vs 23.4%, SD = 0.14), but less tier 3 RTDs (68.4% vs 74.4%, SD = 0.13). A greater proportion of visits in winter compared to summer months had an antibiotic prescribed for tier 2 RTDs (80.2% vs 74.2%, SD = 0.14) and tier 3 RTDs (22.9% vs 16.2%, SD = 0.17). The proportion of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing was higher in winter compared to summer months (72.4% vs 62.0%, P < .01).
Increases in antibiotic prescribing for RTD visits from summer to winter were likely driven by shifts in diagnoses as well as increases in prescribing for certain diagnoses. At least some of this increased prescribing was inappropriate.
The spatial and temporal extent of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) environmental contamination has not been precisely defined. We sought to elucidate contamination of different surface types and how contamination changes over time.
We sampled surfaces longitudinally within COVID-19 patient rooms, performed quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and modeled distance, time, and severity of illness on the probability of detecting SARS-CoV-2 using a mixed-effects binomial model.
The probability of detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a patient room did not vary with distance. However, we found that surface type predicted probability of detection, with floors and high-touch surfaces having the highest probability of detection: floors (odds ratio [OR], 67.8; 95% credible interval [CrI], 36.3–131) and high-touch elevated surfaces (OR, 7.39; 95% CrI, 4.31–13.1). Increased surface contamination was observed in room where patients required high-flow oxygen, positive airway pressure, or mechanical ventilation (OR, 1.6; 95% CrI, 1.03–2.53). The probability of elevated surface contamination decayed with prolonged hospitalization, but the probability of floor detection increased with the duration of the local pandemic wave.
Distance from a patient’s bed did not predict SARS-CoV-2 RNA deposition in patient rooms, but surface type, severity of illness, and time from local pandemic wave predicted surface deposition.
We prospectively surveyed SARS-CoV-2 RNA contamination in staff common areas within an acute-care hospital. An increasing prevalence of surface contamination was detected over time. Adjusting for patient census or community incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the proportion of contaminated surfaces did not predict healthcare worker COVID-19 infection on study units.
Early administration of antibiotics in sepsis is associated with improved patient outcomes, but safe and generalizable approaches to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics after suspected sepsis events are unknown.
We used a modified Delphi approach to identify safety criteria for an opt-out protocol to guide de-escalation or discontinuation of antibiotic therapy after 72 hours in non-ICU patients with suspected sepsis. An expert panel with expertise in antimicrobial stewardship and hospital epidemiology rated 48 unique criteria across 3 electronic survey rating tools. Criteria were rated primarily based on their impact on patient safety and feasibility for extraction from electronic health record review. The 48 unique criteria were rated by anonymous electronic survey tools, and the results were fed back to the expert panel participants. Consensus was achieved to either retain or remove each criterion.
After 3 rounds, 22 unique criteria remained as part of the opt-out safety checklist. These criteria included high-risk comorbidities, signs of severe illness, lack of cultures during sepsis work-up or antibiotic use prior to blood cultures, or ongoing signs and symptoms of infection.
The modified Delphi approach is a useful method to achieve expert-level consensus in the absence of evidence suifficient to provide validated guidance. The Delphi approach allowed for flexibility in development of an opt-out trial protocol for sepsis antibiotic de-escalation. The utility of this protocol should be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.
Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing the healthcare environment have been shown to contribute to risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), with adverse effects on patient morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine how bacterial contamination and persistent MDRO colonization of the healthcare environment are related to the position of patients and wastewater sites.
We performed a prospective cohort study, enrolling 51 hospital rooms at the time of admitting a patient with an eligible MDRO in the prior 30 days. We performed systematic sampling and MDRO culture of rooms, as well as 16S rRNA sequencing to define the environmental microbiome in a subset of samples.
The probability of detecting resistant gram-negative organisms, including Enterobacterales, Acinetobacter spp, and Pseudomonas spp, increased with distance from the patient. In contrast, Clostridioides difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were more likely to be detected close to the patient. Resistant Pseudomonas spp and S. aureus were enriched in these hot spots despite broad deposition of 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned to the same genera, suggesting modifiable factors that permit the persistence of these MDROs.
MDRO hot spots can be defined by distance from the patient and from wastewater reservoirs. Evaluating how MDROs are enriched relative to bacterial DNA deposition helps to identify healthcare micro-environments and suggests how targeted environmental cleaning or design approaches could prevent MDRO persistence and reduce infection risk.
To determine metrics and provider characteristics associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract diagnoses (RTDs).
Retrospective cohort study.
Primary care practices in a university health system.
Patients seen by an attending physician or advanced practice provider (APP) at their primary care office visit with International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM)–coded RTDs.
Medical records were reviewed for 1,200 randomly selected office visits in which an antibiotic was prescribed to determine appropriateness. Based on this gold standard, metrics and provider characteristics associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing were determined.
Overall, 69% of antibiotics were inappropriate. Metrics utilizing prespecified RTDs most strongly associated with inappropriate prescribing were (1) proportion prescribing for RTDs for which antibiotics are almost never required (eg, bronchitis) and (2) proportion prescribing for any RTD. Provider characteristics associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing were APP versus physician (72% vs 58%; P = .02), family medicine versus internal medicine (76% vs 63%; P = .01), board certification 1997 or later versus board certification before 1997 (75% vs 63%; P = .02), nonteaching versus teaching practice (73% vs 51%; P < .01), and nonurban vs urban practice (77% vs 57%; P < .01).
Metrics utilizing proportion prescribing for RTDs for which antibiotics are almost never required and proportion prescribing for any RTD were most strongly associated with inappropriate prescribing. APPs and clinicians with family medicine training, with board certification 1997 or later, and who worked in nonteaching or nonurban practices had higher proportions of inappropriate prescribing. These findings could inform design of interventions to improve prescribing and could represent an efficient way to track inappropriate prescribing.
To examine trends in Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children at a single academic center in 2006–2014.
Retrospective cohort study.
Inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department settings in a private, tertiary referral center.
Patients with an infection culture that grew S. aureus in January 1, 2006, through March 31, 2014.
The first isolate per year for each patient was classified as community-associated (CA-), healthcare-associated (HA-), or HA-community–onset S. aureus. The incidence density of S. aureus, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections were calculated per quarter year.
Overall, 5,491 MRSA and 5,398 MSSA isolates were included. MRSA infections decreased by an average of 5.2% annually (P<.001). MRSA skin and soft-tissue infection (SSTI) incidence density decreased in adults (−3.5%; P<.001) and children (−2.9%; P=.004). MSSA infections at all anatomic sites increased by an average of 1.9% annually (P=.007) in adults and decreased 5.1% annually (P<.001) in children. MSSA SSTI incidence density increased in adults (+3.8%; P<.001) and children (+5.6%; P<.001). For MRSA and MSSA SSTI isolates, susceptibility to tetracycline and clindamycin decreased significantly.
In 2006–2014, MRSA SSTI incidence decreased among children and adults. MSSA SSTI incidence density increased in children and adults, suggesting that current empiric SSTI treatment recommendations may not be optimal. Adults experienced an overall increase in MSSA infections, which may prompt consideration of the need for horizontal infection control practices to decrease MSSA infection risk.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260
The goals of these experiments were to describe the morphology and synaptic
connections of amacrine cells in the baboon retina that contain immunoreactive
vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (vGluT3). These amacrine cells had the
morphology characteristic of knotty bistratified type 1 cells, and their
dendrites formed two plexuses on either side of the center of the inner
plexiform layer. The primary dendrites received large synapses from amacrine
cells, and the higher-order dendrites were both pre- and postsynaptic to other
amacrine cells. Based on light microscopic immunolabeling results, these include
AII cells and starburst cells, but not the polyaxonal amacrine cells
tracer-coupled to ON parasol ganglion cells. The vGluT3 cells received input
from ON bipolar cells at ribbon synapses and made synapses onto OFF bipolar
cells, including the diffuse DB3a type. Many synapses from vGluT3 cells onto
retinal ganglion cells were observed in both plexuses. At synapses where vGluT3
cells were presynaptic, two types of postsynaptic densities were observed; there
were relatively thin ones characteristic of inhibitory synapses and relatively
thick ones characteristic of excitatory synapses. In the light microscopic
experiments with Neurobiotin-injected ganglion cells, vGluT3 cells made contacts
with midget and parasol ganglion cells, including both ON and OFF types. Puncta
containing immunoreactive gephyrin, an inhibitory synapse marker, were found at
appositions between vGluT3 cells and each of the four types of labeled ganglion
cells. The vGluT3 cells did not have detectable levels of immunoreactive
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or immunoreactive glycine transporter 1.
Thus, the vGluT3 cells would be expected to have ON responses to light and make
synapses onto neurons in both the ON and the OFF pathways. Taken with previous
results, these findings suggest that vGluT3 cells release glycine at some of
their output synapses and glutamate at others.
To assess an intervention to limit community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) dissemination.
Randomized, controlled trial.
County Jail, Dallas, Texas.
A total of 4,196 detainees in 68 detention tanks.
Tanks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: in group 1, detainees received cloths that contained chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) to clean their entire skin surface 3 times per week for 6 months; group 2 received identical cloths containing only water; and group 3 received no skin treatment. During the study, all newly arrived detainees were invited to enroll. Nares and hand cultures were obtained at baseline and from all current enrollees at 2 and 6 months.
At baseline, S. aureus was isolated from 41.2% and MRSA from 8.0% (nares and/or hand) of 947 enrollees. The average participation rate was 47%. At 6 months, MRSA carriage was 10.0% in group 3 and 8.7% in group 1 tanks (estimated absolute risk reduction [95% confidence interval (CI)], 1.4% [−4.8% to 7.1%]; P = .655). At 6 months, carriage of any S. aureus was 51.1% in group 3, 40.7% in group 1 (absolute risk reduction [95% CI], 10.4% [0.01%–20.1%]; P = .047), and 42.8% (absolute risk reduction [95% CI], 8.3% [−1.4% to 18.0%]; P = .099) in group 2.
Skin cleaning with CHG for 6 months in detainees, compared with no intervention, significantly decreased carriage of S. aureus, and use of water cloths produced a nonsignificant but similar decrease. A nonsignificant decrease in MRSA carriage was found with CHG cloth use.
To understand the genotypic spectrum of environmental contamination of Staphylococcus aureus in households and its persistence
Prospective longitudinal cohort investigation.
Index participants identified at 2 academic medical centers.
Adults and children with S. aureus skin infections and their household contacts in Los Angeles and Chicago.
Household fomites were surveyed for contamination at baseline and 3 months. All isolates underwent genetic typing.
We enrolled 346 households, 88% of which completed the 3-month follow-up visit. S. aureus environmental contamination was 49% at baseline and 51% at 3 months. Among households with a USA300 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) body infection isolate, environmental contamination with an indistinguishable MRSA strain was 58% at baseline and 63% at 3 months. Baseline factors associated with environmental contamination by the index subject’s infection isolate were body colonization by any household member with the index subject’s infection isolate at baseline (odds ratio [OR], 10.93 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.75–20.79]), higher housing density (OR, 1.47 [95% CI, 1.10–1.96]), and more frequent household fomite cleaning (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.16–2.27]). Household environmental contamination with the index subject’s infection strain at 3 months was associated with USA300 MRSA and a synergistic interaction between baseline environmental contamination and body colonization by any household member with the index subject’s infection strain.
We found that infecting S. aureus isolates frequently persisted environmentally in households 3 months after skin infection. Presence of pathogenic S. aureus strain type in the environment in a household may represent a persistent reservoir that places household members at risk of future infection.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2014;35(11):1373–1382
The incidence of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in the United States decreased during 2005–2008, but noninvasive community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections also frequently lead to hospitalization. We estimated the incidence of all MRSA infections among inpatients at US academic medical centers (AMCs) per 1,000 admissions during 2003–2008.
Retrospective cohort study.
Setting and Participants.
Hospitalized patients at 90% of nonprofit US AMCs during 2003–2008.
Administrative data on MRSA infections from a hospital discharge database (University HealthSystem Consortium [UHC]) were adjusted for underreporting of the MRSA V09.0 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code and validated using chart reviews for patients with known MRSA infections in 2004–2005, 2006, and 2007.
The mean sensitivity of administrative data for MRSA infections at the University of Chicago Medical Center in three 12-month periods during 2004–2007 was 59.1%. On the basis of estimates of billing data sensitivity from the literature and the University of Chicago Medical Center, the number of MRSA infections per 1,000 hospital discharges at US AMCs increased from 20.9 (range, 11.1–47.7) in 2003 to 41.7 (range, 21.9–94.0) in 2008. At the University of Chicago Medical Center, among infections cultured more than 3 days prior to hospital discharge, CA-MRSA infections were more likely to be captured in the UHC billing-derived data than were healthcare-associated MRSA infections.
The number of hospital admissions for any MRSA infection per 1,000 hospital admissions overall increased during 2003–2008. Use of unadjusted administrative hospital discharge data or surveillance for invasive disease far underestimates the number of MRSA infections among hospitalized patients.
In response to epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the community, the Illinois General Assembly mandated that all patients admitted to intensive care units statewide be screened for MRSA. Screening was instituted at our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in September 2007 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based strategy. The law created an opportunity to determine the rate of MRSA colonization among neonates, to gather information about subsequent MRSA infections, and to evaluate risk factors for MRSA colonization on admission to the NICU.