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To examine differences in noticing and use of nutrition information comparing jurisdictions with and without mandatory menu labelling policies and examine differences among sociodemographic groups.
Cross-sectional data from the International Food Policy Study (IFPS) online survey.
IFPS participants from Australia, Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom and USA in 2019.
Adults aged 18–99; n 19 393.
Participants in jurisdictions with mandatory policies were significantly more likely to notice and use nutrition information, order something different, eat less of their order and change restaurants compared to jurisdictions without policies. For noticed nutrition information, the differences between policy groups were greatest comparing older to younger age groups and comparing high education (difference of 10·7 %, 95 % CI 8·9, 12·6) to low education (difference of 4·1 %, 95 % CI 1·8, 6·3). For used nutrition information, differences were greatest comparing high education (difference of 4·9 %, 95 % CI 3·5, 6·4) to low education (difference of 1·8 %, 95 % CI 0·2, 3·5). Mandatory labelling was associated with an increase in ordering something different among the majority ethnicity group and a decrease among the minority ethnicity group. For changed restaurant visited, differences were greater for medium and high education compared to low education, and differences were greater for higher compared to lower income adequacy.
Participants living in jurisdictions with mandatory nutrition information in restaurants were more likely to report noticing and using nutrition information, as well as greater efforts to modify their consumption. However, the magnitudes of these differences were relatively small.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
We performed a preimplementation assessment of workflows, resources, needs, and antibiotic prescribing practices of trainees and practicing dentists to inform the development of an antibiotic-stewardship clinical decision-support tool (CDST) for dentists.
We used a technology implementation framework to conduct the preimplementation assessment via surveys and focus groups of students, residents, and faculty members. Using Likert scales, the survey assessed baseline knowledge and confidence in dental providers’ antibiotic prescribing. The focus groups gathered information on existing workflows, resources, and needs for end users for our CDST.
Of 355 dental providers recruited to take the survey, 213 (60%) responded: 151 students, 27 residents, and 35 faculty. The average confidence in antibiotic prescribing decisions was 3.2 ± 1.0 on a scale of 1 to 5 (ie, moderate). Dental students were less confident about prescribing antibiotics than residents and faculty (P < .01). However, antibiotic prescribing knowledge was no different between dental students, residents, and faculty. The mean likelihood of prescribing an antibiotic when it was not needed was 2.7 ± 0.6 on a scale of 1 to 5 (unlikely to maybe) and was not meaningfully different across subgroups (P = .10). We had 10 participants across 3 focus groups: 7 students, 2 residents, and 1 faculty member. Four major themes emerged, which indicated that dentists: (1) make antibiotic prescribing decisions based on anecdotal experiences; (2) defer to physicians’ recommendations; (3) have limited access to evidence-based resources; and (4) want CDST for antibiotic prescribing.
Dentists’ confidence in antibiotic prescribing increased by training level, but knowledge did not. Trainees and practicing dentists would benefit from a CDST to improve appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing.
2023 marks the centenary of the Treaty of Lausanne, which ended the state of war between Turkey and the western allies, in particular Greece, and reordered the Near East, settling frontiers and providing for the protection of minorities. This essay reviews the historiography of the period 1915-23 through Greek and British sources in printed books and papers, covering the Greek irredentist claim to western Asia Minor, the Paris peace conference, the occupation of Smyrna, the Greek war against Mustapha Kemal's Turkish nationalists, the collapse of the Greek army, the Lausanne treaty, and the convention on the exchange of Greek and Turkish populations agreed at Lausanne in 1923.
Effective management of the introduced invasive grass common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.] requires the ability to differentiate between the introduced and native subspecies found in North America. While genetic tools are useful for discriminating between the subspecies, morphological identification is a useful complementary approach that is low to zero cost and does not require specialized equipment or technical expertise. The objective of our study was to identify the best morphological traits for rapid and simple identification of native and introduced P. australis. A suite of 22 morphological traits were measured in 21 introduced and 27 native P. australis populations identified by genetic barcoding across southern Ontario, Canada. Traits were compared between the subspecies to identify measurements that offered reliable, diagnostic separation. Overall, 21 of the 22 traits differed between the subspecies, with four offering complete separation: the retention of leaf sheaths on dead stems; a categorical assessment of stem color; the base height of the ligule, excluding the hairy fringe; and a combined measurement of leaf length and lower glume length. Additionally, round fungal spots on the stem occurred only on the native subspecies and never on the sampled introduced populations. The high degree of variation observed in traits within and between the subspecies cautions against a “common wisdom” approach to identification or automatic interpretation of intermediate traits as indicative of aberrant populations or hybridization. As an alternative, we have compiled the five best traits into a checklist of simple and reliable measurements to identify native and introduced P. australis. This guide will be most applicable for samples collected in the late summer and fall in the Great Lakes region but can also inform best practices for morphological identification in other regions as well.
Radiocarbon (14C) data for 2nd millennium BC urban sites in northern Mesopotamia have been lacking until recently. This article presents a preliminary dataset and Bayesian model addressing the Middle and early Late Bronze Age (Old Babylonian and pre/early Mittani) strata of Kurd Qaburstan—one of the largest archaeological sites on the Erbil plain of Iraqi Kurdistan. The results place the large, densely occupied and fortified Middle Bronze Age city in the first part of the 18th century BC, an outcome consistent with the site’s tentative identification as ancient Qabra. A long occupation gap (up to two centuries) probably ensued, before a smaller town confined to the high mound and part of the northeastern lower town resumed in the late 16th and early 15th centuries BC, possibly before this region became part of the Late Bronze Age kingdom of Mittani.
This collection profiles understudied figures in the book and print trades of the seventeenth century. With an equal balance between women and men, it intervenes in the history of the trades, emphasising the broad range of material, cultural, and ideological work these people undertook. It offers a biographical introduction to each figure, placing them in their social, professional, and institutional settings. The collection considers varied print trade roles including that of the printer, publisher, paper-maker, and bookseller, as well as several specific trade networks and numerous textual forms. The biographies draw on extensive new archival research, with details of key sources for further study on each figure. Chronologically organised, this Element offers a primer both on numerous individual figures, and on the tribulations and innovations of the print trade in the century of revolution.
Fifty years after its introduction, the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Goldwater Rule remains contentious, prohibiting member-psychiatrists from providing mental health commentary on individuals they have not treated and where they lack consent. Whilst its resonance extends beyond the United States, there is limited awareness about the Goldwater Rule’s applicability elsewhere, notably within Europe.
In 2022, we investigated whether the European Psychiatric Association’s (EPA) forty-four National Psychiatric Association Members (NPAs) had similar guidelines to the Goldwater Rule or comparable ethical positions around media and public commentary. We initially searched NPA websites and subsequently contacted NPAs via email and phone. Findings were coded to four categories: “NPA-level rules or position”, “No NPA-level rules orposition but noted country-level rules”, “No NPA-level rules or position and did not note country-level rules”, and “No response”.
n=27 NPAs had relevant web materials or replied to our correspondence (61.3% of total NPAs). From these 27, based on our interpretation, n=6 (22.2%) had rules or positions, n=6 (22.2%) indicated that country-level rules existed, and n=15 (55.5%) did not have applicable NPA-level or country-level regulations.
A sizeable proportion of NPAs included in our study have not yet formally developed or considered ethical issues addressed by the Goldwater Rule and psychiatric commentary on an individual’s psychopathology. Accordingly, the EPA could consider broader discussions about this, accounting for national traditions and sociocultural aspects of clinical practice. These could integrate the advantages and disadvantages of the APA’s rubric towards an evolved ethical debate.
Chapter 8 examines the contemporary value of early cities from several perspectives, including both heritage and scientific values. It reviews the contributions of the book, sets out an agenda for continuing research, and examines three arguments for the relevance of early cities for urban issues today.
Chapter 2 focuses on the key concept of the book, “energized crowding.” After a theoretical and comparative introduction, the chapter outlines the succession of early pre-urban settlements, from Paleolithic hunting camps through Neolithic villages.
Chapter 6 reviews urban institutions and their role as top-down forces shaping life in early cities. The chapter focuses on social class and wealth inequality, the royal palace, and the relationship between people and urban government.