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A substantial body of evidence suggests that favoring reason over intuition (employing an analytic cognitive style) is associated with reduced belief in God. In the current work, we address outstanding issues in this literature with two studies examining the relationship between analytic cognitive style (as measured by performance on the Cognitive Reflection Test) and belief in God. First, prior research focused on Judeo-Christian cultures, and it is uncertain whether the results generalize to other religious systems or beliefs. Study 1 helps to address this question by documenting a negative correlation between CRT performance and belief in God, r = −.18, in a sample of 513 participants from India, a majority Hindu country. Second, among 150 participants from the United Kingdom, Gervais et al. (2018) reported the first and (to date) only evidence for a positive relationship between CRT and belief in God. In Study 2, we assess the robustness of this result by recruiting 547 participants from the United Kingdom. Unlike Gervais et al., using the same items, we find a negative correlation between CRT and belief in God (r = −.19). Our results add further support to the argument that analytic thinking undermines belief in God.
Developmental programming studies using mouse models have housed the animals at human thermoneutral temperatures (22°C) which imposes constant cold stress. As this impacts energy homeostasis, we investigated the effects of two housing temperatures (22°C and 30°C) on obesity development in male and female offspring of Control and FR dams. Pregnant mice were housed at 22°C (cold-exposed, CE) or 30°C (thermoneutrality, TN) room temperature. At gestational age e10, mice were fed either an ad libitum diet (Control) or were 30% food-restricted (FR) to produce low birth weight newborns. Following delivery, all dams were fed an ad libitum diet and maternal mice continued to nurse their own pups. At 3 weeks of age, offspring were weaned to an ad libitum diet and housed at similar temperatures as their mothers. Body weights and food intake were monitored. At 6 months of age, body composition and glucose tolerance test were determined, after which, brain and adipose tissue were collected for analysis. FR/CE and FR/TN offspring exhibited hyperphagia and were significantly heavier with increased adiposity as compared to their respective Controls. There was sex-specific effects of temperature in both groups. Male offspring at TN were heavier with increased body fat, though the food intake was decreased as compared to CE males. This was reflected by hypertrophic adipocytes and increased arcuate nucleus satiety/appetite ratio. In contrast, female offspring were not impacted by housing temperature. Thus, unlike female offspring, there was a significant interaction of diet and temperature evident in the male offspring with accentuated adverse effects evident in FR/TN males.
Deficits in visuospatial attention, known as neglect, are common following brain injury, but underdiagnosed and poorly treated, resulting in long-term cognitive disability. In clinical settings, neglect is often assessed using simple pen-and-paper tests. While convenient, these cannot characterise the full spectrum of neglect. This protocol reports a research programme that compares traditional neglect assessments with a novel virtual reality attention assessment platform: The Attention Atlas (AA).
The AA was codesigned by researchers and clinicians to meet the clinical need for improved neglect assessment. The AA uses a visual search paradigm to map the attended space in three dimensions and seeks to identify the optimal parameters that best distinguish neglect from non-neglect, and the spectrum of neglect, by providing near-time feedback to clinicians on system-level behavioural performance. A series of experiments will address procedural, scientific, patient, and clinical feasibility domains.
Analyses focuses on descriptive measures of reaction time, accuracy data for target localisation, and histogram-based raycast attentional mapping analysis; which measures the individual’s orientation in space, and inter- and intra-individual variation of visuospatial attention. We will compare neglect and control data using parametric between-subjects analyses. We present example individual-level results produced in near-time during visual search.
The development and validation of the AA is part of a new generation of translational neuroscience that exploits the latest advances in technology and brain science, including technology repurposed from the consumer gaming market. This approach to rehabilitation has the potential for highly accurate, highly engaging, personalised care.
Background: Although many infectious conditions can be safely treated with oral antimicrobials, select circumstances require parenteral antimicrobial therapy. Benefits of OPAT include prevention of hospital-associated conditions and significant cost savings. However, risks of OPAT include adverse drug events (ADEs) and vascular access device (VAD) complications. We analyzed the safety of OPAT regimens as part of implementing a collaborative OPAT program. Methods: We reviewed adult patients discharged home from an academic hospital between January 2019 and June 2021. Patients with cystic fibrosis were excluded. Data on OPAT agents, ADEs, and VAD complications were collected from electronic medical records by 2 reviewers using a standardized REDCap instrument. The institutional review board approved this study. Results: The cohort comprised 265 unique patients; 212 (80%) received single-drug therapy and 53 (20%) received multidrug therapy. In total, 81 patients (31%), who received a total of 110 antimicrobials, experienced an ADE. In total, 55 patients (21%), who received a total of 72 antimicrobials, experienced a VAD complication. Patients who received >1 antimicrobial were more likely to experience an ADE (53% vs 25%; P = .0002) or a VAD complication (32% vs 18%; P = .04). Cephalosporins were the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial class (Table 1). Conclusions: ADEs and VAD complications were frequent in patients on OPAT. Local data should inform (1) the selection of OPAT therapy and (2) the standardized monitoring of patients who receive OPAT going forward in the implementation of this collaborative OPAT program.