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Background: Antibiotic use without a prescription (nonprescription use) leads to antibiotic overuse, with negative consequences for patient and public health. We studied whether screening patients for prior nonprescription antibiotic use in the past 12 months predicted their intentions to use them in the future. Methods: A survey asking respondents about prior and intended nonprescription antibiotic use was performed between January 2020 and June 2021 among patients in waiting rooms of 6 public clinics and 2 private emergency departments in economically and socially diverse urban and suburban areas. Respondents were classified as prior nonprescription users if they reported previously taking oral antibiotics without contacting a doctor, dentist, or nurse. Intended use was defined as answering “yes” or “maybe” to the question, “Would you use antibiotics without contacting a doctor, nurse, or dentist?” We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV) of prior nonprescription antibiotic use in the past 12 months for future intended nonprescription use. Bayes PPV and NPV were also calculated, considering the prevalence of nonprescription antibiotic use (24.8%) in our study. Results: Of the 564 patients surveyed, the median age was 51 years (SD, 19–92), with 72% of patients identifying as female. Most were from the public healthcare system (72.5%). Most respondents identified as Hispanic or Latino(a) (47%) or African American (33%), and 57% received Medicaid or the county financial assistance program. Prior nonprescription use was reported by 246 (43%) of 564 individuals, with 91 (16%) reporting nonprescription use within the previous 12 months. Intention to use nonprescription antibiotics was reported by 140 participants (25%). The sensitivity and specificity of prior nonprescription use in the past 12 months to predict the intention to use nonprescription antibiotics in the future were 75.9% (95% CI, 65.3–84.6) and 91.4% (95% CI, 87.8–94.2), respectively. After the Bayes’ adjustment, the PPV and NPV of prior use to predict future intention were 74.5% (95% CI, 66.7–80.9) and 92.0% (95% CI, 88.7–94.4) (Table 1). Conclusions: These results show that prior nonprescription antibiotic use in the past 12 months predicted the intention to use nonprescription antibiotics in the future (PPV of 75%). As a stewardship effort, we suggest clinicians use a simple question about prior nonprescription antibiotic use in primary-care settings as a screening question for patients at high risk for future nonprescription antibiotic use.
Background: Nonprescription antibiotic use includes taking an antibiotic without medical guidance (eg, leftover antibiotics, antibiotics from friends or relatives, or antibiotics purchased without a prescription). Nonprescription use contributes to antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug reactions, interactions, and superinfections such as Clostridioides difficile colitis. Qualitative studies exploring perspectives regarding nonprescription use among Hispanic patients are lacking. We used the Kilbourne Framework for Advancing Health Disparities Research to identify factors influencing Hispanic patients’ nonprescription use and to organize our findings. Methods: Our study includes Hispanic primary-care clinic patients with different types of health coverage in the Houston metroplex who endorsed nonprescription use in a previous quantitative survey. Semistructured interviews explored the factors promoting nonprescription use in Hispanic adults. Interviews were conducted remotely, in English or Spanish, between May 2020 and October 2021. We used inductive coding and thematic analysis to identify the factors and motives for nonprescription use. Results: Of the 35 Hispanic participants surveyed, 69% were female and between the ages of 27 and 66. All participants had some form of healthcare coverage (eg, Medicare or private insurance, Medicaid, or the county financial assistance program). Participants reported obtaining antibiotics from their own leftover prescriptions and through trusted persons (eg, herbalists, pharmacists, friends/relatives, and others), buying them under the counter in US markets, and purchasing them without a prescription outside the United States. Thematic analysis revealed the factors contributing to nonprescription use (Fig. 1). Themes included beliefs that the ‘doctor visit was unnecessary,’ ‘limited direct access to healthcare’ in the United States (due to limited insurance coverage, high costs of the doctor’s visits and medications, and long clinic wait times), ‘more open indirect access to healthcare’ abroad and under the counter in the United States, and communication difficulties (eg, language barriers with clinicians, perceived staff rudeness, and gaps in health literacy). Figure 2 shows representative quotes across thematic domains. Participants expressed having confidence in medical recommendations from pharmacists and trusted community members in their social networks. Conclusions: Antibiotic stewardship interventions that include pharmacist-driven patient education regarding appropriate antibiotic use may decrease nonprescription antibiotic use in Hispanic communities. Additionally, improving access to care while addressing communication barriers and cultural competency in clinics may improve primary care delivery and reduce potentially unsafe antibiotic use.
National validation of claims-based surveillance for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following colon surgery and abdominal hysterectomy.
Retrospective cohort study.
US hospitals selected for data validation by Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).
The study included 550 hospitals performing colon surgery and 458 hospitals performing abdominal hysterectomy in federal fiscal year 2013.
We requested 1,200 medical records from hospitals selected for validation as part of the CMS Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting program. For colon surgery, we sampled 60% with a billing code suggestive of SSI during their index admission and/or readmission within 30 days and 40% who were readmitted without one of these codes. For abdominal hysterectomy, we included all patients with an SSI code during their index admission, all patients readmitted within 30 days, and a sample of those with a prolonged surgical admission (length of stay > 7 days). We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive value for the different groups.
We identified 142 colon-surgery SSIs (46 superficial SSIs and 96 deep and organ-space SSIs) and 127 abdominal-hysterectomy SSIs (58 superficial SSIs and 69 deep and organ-space SSIs). Extrapolating to the full CMS data validation cohort, we estimated an SSI rate of 8.3% for colon surgery and 3.0% for abdominal hysterectomy. Our colon-surgery surveillance codes identified 93% of SSIs, with 1 SSI identified for every 2.6 patients reviewed. Our abdominal-hysterectomy surveillance codes identified 73% of SSIs, with 1 SSI identified for every 1.6 patients reviewed.
Using claims to target record review for SSI validation performed well in a national sample.
To examine differences in noticing and use of nutrition information comparing jurisdictions with and without mandatory menu labelling policies and examine differences among sociodemographic groups.
Cross-sectional data from the International Food Policy Study (IFPS) online survey.
IFPS participants from Australia, Canada, Mexico, United Kingdom and USA in 2019.
Adults aged 18–99; n 19 393.
Participants in jurisdictions with mandatory policies were significantly more likely to notice and use nutrition information, order something different, eat less of their order and change restaurants compared to jurisdictions without policies. For noticed nutrition information, the differences between policy groups were greatest comparing older to younger age groups and comparing high education (difference of 10·7 %, 95 % CI 8·9, 12·6) to low education (difference of 4·1 %, 95 % CI 1·8, 6·3). For used nutrition information, differences were greatest comparing high education (difference of 4·9 %, 95 % CI 3·5, 6·4) to low education (difference of 1·8 %, 95 % CI 0·2, 3·5). Mandatory labelling was associated with an increase in ordering something different among the majority ethnicity group and a decrease among the minority ethnicity group. For changed restaurant visited, differences were greater for medium and high education compared to low education, and differences were greater for higher compared to lower income adequacy.
Participants living in jurisdictions with mandatory nutrition information in restaurants were more likely to report noticing and using nutrition information, as well as greater efforts to modify their consumption. However, the magnitudes of these differences were relatively small.
Insufficient recruitment of groups underrepresented in medical research threatens the generalizability of research findings and compounds inequity in research and medicine. In the present study, we examined barriers and facilitators to recruitment of underrepresented research participants from the perspective of clinical research coordinators (CRCs).
CRCs from one adult and one pediatric academic medical centers completed an online survey in April-May 2022. Survey topics included: participant language and translations, cultural competency training, incentives for research participation, study location, and participant research literacy. CRCs also reported their success in recruiting individuals from various backgrounds and completed an implicit bias measure.
Surveys were completed by 220 CRCs. CRCs indicated that recruitment is improved by having translated study materials, providing incentives to compensate participants, and reducing the number of in-person study visits. Most CRCs had completed some form of cultural competency training, but most also felt that the training either had no effect or made them feel less confident in approaching prospective participants from backgrounds different than their own. In general, CRCs reported having greater success in recruiting prospective participants from groups that are not underrepresented in research. Results of the implicit bias measure did not indicate that bias was associated with intentions to approach a prospective participant.
CRCs identified several strategies to improve recruitment of underrepresented research participants, and CRC insights aligned with insights from research participants in previous work. Further research is needed to understand the impact of cultural competency training on recruitment of underrepresented research participants.
People with psychosis in Malawi have very limited access to timely assessment and evidence-based care, leading to a long duration of untreated psychosis and persistent disability. Most people with psychosis in the country consult traditional or religious healers. Stigmatising attitudes are common and services have limited capacity, particularly in rural areas. This paper, focusing on pathways to care for psychosis in Malawi, is based on the Wellcome Trust Psychosis Flagship Report on the Landscape of Mental Health Services for Psychosis in Malawi. Its purpose is to inform Psychosis Recovery Orientation in Malawi by Improving Services and Engagement (PROMISE), a longitudinal study that aims to build on existing services to develop sustainable psychosis detection systems and management pathways to promote recovery.
The IntCal family of radiocarbon (14C) calibration curves is based on research spanning more than three decades. The IntCal group have collated the 14C and calendar age data (mostly derived from primary publications with other types of data and meta-data) and, since 2010, made them available for other sorts of analysis through an open-access database. This has ensured transparency in terms of the data used in the construction of the ratified calibration curves. As the IntCal database expands, work is underway to facilitate best practice for new data submissions, make more of the associated metadata available in a structured form, and help those wishing to process the data with programming languages such as R, Python, and MATLAB. The data and metadata are complex because of the range of different types of archives. A restructured interface, based on the “IntChron” open-access data model, includes tools which allow the data to be plotted and compared without the need for export. The intention is to include complementary information which can be used alongside the main 14C series to provide new insights into the global carbon cycle, as well as facilitating access to the data for other research applications. Overall, this work aims to streamline the generation of new calibration curves.
Advance consent could allow individuals at high risk of stroke to provide consent before they might become eligible for enrollment in acute stroke trials. This survey explores the acceptability of this novel technique to Canadian Research Ethics Board (REB) chairs that review acute stroke trials. Responses from 15 REB chairs showed that majority of respondents expressed comfort approving studies that adopt advance consent. There was no clear preference for advance consent over deferral of consent, although respondents expressed significant concern with broad rather than trial-specific advance consent. These findings shed light on the acceptability of advance consent to Canadian ethics regulators.
Turfgrass managers apply nonselective herbicides to control winter annual weeds during dormancy of warm-season turfgrass. Zoysiagrass subcanopies, however, retain green leaves and stems during winter dormancy, especially in warmer climates. The partially green zoysiagrass often deters the use of nonselective herbicides due to variable injury concerns in transition and southern climatic zones. This study evaluated zoysiagrass response to glyphosate and glufosinate applied at four different growing degree day (GDD)-based application timings during postdormancy transition in different locations, including Blacksburg, VA; Starkville, MS; and Virginia Beach, VA, in 2018 and 2019. GDD was calculated using a 5 C base temperature with accumulation beginning January 1 each year, and targeted application timings were 125, 200, 275, and 350 GDD5C. Zoysiagrass injury response to glyphosate and glufosinate was consistent across a broad growing region from northern Mississippi to coastal Virginia, but it varied by application timing. Glyphosate application at 125 and 200 GDD5C can be used safely for weed control during the postdormancy period of zoysiagrass, while glufosinate caused unacceptable turf injury regardless of application timing. Glyphosate and glufosinate exhibited a stepwise increase to maximum injury with increasing targeted GDD5C application timings. Glyphosate applied at 125 or 200 GDD5C did not injure zoysiagrass above a threshold of 30%, whereas glufosinate caused greater than 30% injury for 28 and 29 d when applied at 125 and 200 GDD5C, respectively. Likewise, glyphosate application at 125 or 200 GDD5C did not affect the zoysiagrass green cover area under the progress curve per day, whereas later applications reduced it. Glyphosate and glufosinate caused greater injury to zoysiagrass when applied at greater cumulative heat units and this was attributed to increasing turfgrass green leaf density, because heat unit accumulation is positively correlated with green leaf density. Accumulated heat unit-based application timing will allow practitioners to apply nonselective herbicides with reduced injury concerns.
Coarse spatial resolution in gridded precipitation datasets, reanalysis, and climate model outputs restricts their ability to characterize the localized extreme rain events and limits the use of the coarse resolution information for local to regional scale climate management strategies. Deep learning models have recently been developed to rapidly downscale the coarse resolution precipitation to the high local scale resolution at a much lower cost than dynamic downscaling. However, these existing super-resolution deep learning modeling studies have not rigorously evaluated the model’s skill in producing fine-scale spatial variability, particularly over topographic features. These current deep-learning models also have difficulty predicting the complex spatial structure of extreme events. Here, we develop a model based on super-resolution deconvolution neural network (SRDN) to downscale the hourly precipitation and evaluate the predictions. We apply three versions of the SRDN model: (a) SRDN (no orography), (b) SRDN-O (orography only at final resolution enhancement), and (c) SRDN-SO (orography at each step of resolution enhancement). We assess the ability of SRDN-based models to reproduce the fine-scale spatial variability and compare it with the previously used deep learning model (DeepSD). All the models are trained and tested using the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) data to perform a 100 to 12.5 km of hourly precipitation downscaling over the Australian region. We found that SRDN-based models, including orography, deliver better fine-scale spatial structures of both climatology and extremes, and significantly improved the deep-learning downscaling. The SRDN-SO model performs well both qualitatively and quantitatively in reconstructing the fine-scale spatial variability of climatology and rainfall extremes over complex orographic regions.
A survey of academic medical-center hospital epidemiologists indicated substantial deviation from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance regarding healthcare providers (HCPs) recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) returning to work. Many hospitals continue to operate under contingency status and have HCPs return to work earlier than recommended.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The effect of immunosuppressive metabolites on anti-tumor immunity in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated vs carcinogen-driven head and neck cancer is unknown. The objective of this study is to define the extent to which metabolites impair this response and identify novel metabolic targets for enhancing anti-tumor immunity. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: HPV-associated and carcinogen-driven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma specimens were frozen following surgical excision, and tumor sections were cut onto glass slides. Slides were coated in alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHCA) matrix and subjected to mass spectrometry imaging using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) on a Bruker SolariX XR 12T Hybrid QqFT-ICR mass spectrometer run in positive mode. Slides were then stained for immunohistochemistry (IHC) using markers of CD8 T cells, macrophages (CD163), B cells (CD20), and tumor cells (panCK). Mass spectrometry imaging and IHC spatially resolved data will be co-registered and metabolite intensity in regions of interest (cell types) quantified. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of seven HPV-associated (three metastatic lymph nodes and four primary tumors) and six carcinogen-driven (primary tumors) HNSC specimens were subjected to MALDI and IHC. Metabolites significantly enriched in HPV-associated HNSC relative to carcinogen-driven HNSC include 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid, xanthine, 2,3,5-Trichloromaleylacetate, and indole-3-carboxyaldehyde. Metabolites significantly enriched in carcinogen-driven HNSC relative to HPV-associated HNSC include hesperetin 3'-O-sulfate, hypoxanthine, phosphorylcholine, and L-homocysteine sulfonic acid. In ongoing analyses, we anticipate identifying a relationship between CD8+ T cell enriched vs depleted regions and immunosuppressive metabolites (e.g., kynurenine, adenosine monophosphate). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Defining the extent to which CD8+ T cells interact with the metabolic milieu of the microenvironment will provide a foundation for metabolic Precision Medicine. Strategically targeting metabolic pathways to enhance the anti-tumor immune response will be leveraged for the design and implementation of immune modulatory metabolic therapy.
Individuals living with severe mental illness can have significant emotional, physical and social challenges. Collaborative care combines clinical and organisational components.
We tested whether a primary care-based collaborative care model (PARTNERS) would improve quality of life for people with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other psychoses, compared with usual care.
We conducted a general practice-based, cluster randomised controlled superiority trial. Practices were recruited from four English regions and allocated (1:1) to intervention or control. Individuals receiving limited input in secondary care or who were under primary care only were eligible. The 12-month PARTNERS intervention incorporated person-centred coaching support and liaison work. The primary outcome was quality of life as measured by the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA).
We allocated 39 general practices, with 198 participants, to the PARTNERS intervention (20 practices, 116 participants) or control (19 practices, 82 participants). Primary outcome data were available for 99 (85.3%) intervention and 71 (86.6%) control participants. Mean change in overall MANSA score did not differ between the groups (intervention: 0.25, s.d. 0.73; control: 0.21, s.d. 0.86; estimated fully adjusted between-group difference 0.03, 95% CI −0.25 to 0.31; P = 0.819). Acute mental health episodes (safety outcome) included three crises in the intervention group and four in the control group.
There was no evidence of a difference in quality of life, as measured with the MANSA, between those receiving the PARTNERS intervention and usual care. Shifting care to primary care was not associated with increased adverse outcomes.
Interprofessional healthcare team function is critical to the effective delivery of patient care. Team members must possess teamwork competencies, as team function impacts patient, staff, team, and healthcare organizational outcomes. There is evidence that team training is beneficial; however, consensus on the optimal training content, methods, and evaluation is lacking. This manuscript will focus on training content. Team science and training research indicates that an effective team training program must be founded upon teamwork competencies. The Team FIRST framework asserts there are 10 teamwork competencies essential for healthcare providers: recognizing criticality of teamwork, creating a psychologically safe environment, structured communication, closed-loop communication, asking clarifying questions, sharing unique information, optimizing team mental models, mutual trust, mutual performance monitoring, and reflection/debriefing. The Team FIRST framework was conceptualized to instill these evidence-based teamwork competencies in healthcare professionals to improve interprofessional collaboration. This framework is founded in validated team science research and serves future efforts to develop and pilot educational strategies that educate healthcare workers on these competencies.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlighted the lack of agreement regarding the definition of aerosol-generating procedures and potential risk to healthcare personnel. We convened a group of Massachusetts healthcare epidemiologists to develop consensus through expert opinion in an area where broader guidance was lacking at the time.
Advance consent presents a potential solution to the challenge of obtaining informed consent for participation in acute stroke trials. Clinicians in stroke prevention clinics are uniquely positioned to identify and seek consent from potential stroke trial participants. To assess the acceptability of advance consent to Canadian stroke clinic physicians, we performed an online survey. We obtained 58 respondents (response rate 35%): the vast majority (82%) expressed comfort with obtaining advance consent and 92% felt that doing so would not be a significant disruption to clinic workflow. These results support further study of advance consent for acute stroke trials.
In this chapter, we provide an explication of advance directives (ADs) in a broad, international context, laying out the origins of the concept and how this is developing over time, as well as some of the conceptual and practical challenges that arise when ADs are implemented. We then put forward the two key rationales for our focus on the Asian context of advance directives and conclude with an introduction of the typology of jurisdictions that is employed in this volume.
Current psychiatric diagnoses, although heritable, have not been clearly mapped onto distinct underlying pathogenic processes. The same symptoms often occur in multiple disorders, and a substantial proportion of both genetic and environmental risk factors are shared across disorders. However, the relationship between shared symptoms and shared genetic liability is still poorly understood.
Well-characterised, cross-disorder samples are needed to investigate this matter, but few currently exist. Our aim is to develop procedures to purposely curate and aggregate genotypic and phenotypic data in psychiatric research.
As part of the Cardiff MRC Mental Health Data Pathfinder initiative, we have curated and harmonised phenotypic and genetic information from 15 studies to create a new data repository, DRAGON-Data. To date, DRAGON-Data includes over 45 000 individuals: adults and children with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric diagnoses, affected probands within collected families and individuals who carry a known neurodevelopmental risk copy number variant.
We have processed the available phenotype information to derive core variables that can be reliably analysed across groups. In addition, all data-sets with genotype information have undergone rigorous quality control, imputation, copy number variant calling and polygenic score generation.
DRAGON-Data combines genetic and non-genetic information, and is available as a resource for research across traditional psychiatric diagnostic categories. Algorithms and pipelines used for data harmonisation are currently publicly available for the scientific community, and an appropriate data-sharing protocol will be developed as part of ongoing projects (DATAMIND) in partnership with Health Data Research UK.
Cardiac sources of emboli can be identified by transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE). The Canadian Best Practice Guidelines recommend routine use of TTE in the initial workup of ischemic stroke when an embolic source is suspected. However, TTEs are commonly ordered for all patients despite insufficient evidence to justify cost-effectiveness. We aim to evaluate the TTE ordering pattern in the initial workup of ischemic stroke at a regional Stroke Center in Central South Ontario and determine the proportion of studies which led to a change in management and affected length of stay (LOS).
Hospital records of 520 patients with a discharge diagnosis of TIA or ischemic stroke between October 2016 and June 2017 were reviewed to gather information
477 patients admitted for TIA or ischemic stroke met inclusion criteria. 67.9% received TTE, out of which 6.0% had findings of cardiac sources of emboli including left ventricular thrombus, atrial septal aneurysm, PFO, atrial myxoma, and valvular vegetation. 2.5% of all TTE findings led to change in medical management. The median LOS of patients who underwent TTE was 2 days longer (p < 0.00001).
TTE in the initial workup of TIA or ischemic stroke remains common practice. The yield of TTEs is low, and the proportion of studies that lead to changes in medical management is minimal. TTE completion was associated with increased LOS and may result in increased healthcare spending; however, additional factors prolonging the LOS could not be excluded.