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Observational studies indicate a relationship between vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D; 25OHD) deficiency and the development of internalising disorders, especially depression. However, causal inference approaches (e.g. Mendelian randomisation) did not confirm this relationship. Findings from biobehavioural research suggests that new insights are revealed when focusing on psychopathological dimensions rather than on clinical diagnoses. This study provides further evidence on the relationship between 25OHD and the internalising dimension.
This investigation aimed at examining the causality between 25OHD and internalising disorders including a common internalising factor.
We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomisation using genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data for 25OHD (417 580 participants), major depressive disorder (45 591 cases; 97 674 controls), anxiety (5580 cases; 11 730 controls), post-traumatic stress disorder (12 080 cases; 33 446 controls), panic disorder (2248 cases; 7992 controls), obsessive–compulsive disorder (2688 cases; 7037 controls) and anorexia nervosa (16 992 cases; 55 525 controls). GWAS results of the internalising phenotypes were combined to a common factor representing the internalising dimension. We performed several complementary analyses to reduce the risk of pleiotropy and used a second 25OHD GWAS for replication.
We found no causal relationship between 25OHD and any of the internalising phenotypes studied, nor with the common internalising factor. Several pleiotropy-robust methods corroborated the null association.
Following current transdiagnostic approaches to investigate mental disorders, our results focused on the shared genetic basis between different internalising phenotypes and provide no evidence for an effect of 25OHD on the internalising dimension.
CVD is the most common chronic condition and the highest cause of mortality in the USA. The aim of the present work was to investigate diet and sedentary behaviour in relation to mortality in US CVD survivors. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1999 and 2014 linked to the US mortality registry updated to 2015 were investigated. Multivariate adjusted Cox regression was used to derive mortality hazards in relation to sedentary behaviour and nutrient intake. A multiplicative and additive interaction analysis was conducted to evaluate how sedentariness and diet influence mortality in US CVD survivors. A sample of 2473 participants followed for a median period of 5·6 years resulted in 761 deaths, and 199 deaths were due to CVD. A monotone increasing relationship between time spent in sedentary activities and mortality risk was observed for all-cause and CVD mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·09, 1·31 and HR = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·67, respectively). Inverse mortality risks in the range of 22–34 % were observed when comparing the highest with the lowest tertile of dietary fibre, vitamin A, carotene, riboflavin and vitamin C. Sedentariness below 360 min/d and dietary fibre and vitamin intake above the median interact on an additive scale influencing positively all-cause and CVD mortality risk. Reduced sedentariness in combination with a varied diet rich in dietary fibre and vitamins appears to be a useful strategy to reduce all-cause and CVD mortality in US CVD survivors.
Globally, over 1.97 billion adults and 338 million children and adolescents are living with overweight and obesity, increasing the risk of numerous co-morbidities, including at least 12 cancers(1). WCRF/AICR conducted a literature review of diet and physical activity as determinants of weight gain, overweight and obesity in adults and children. We also introduce a novel evidence-based policy framework for promoting physical activity, and linked database, currently in development as part of the EU-funded CO-CREATE project on child and adolescent obesity prevention.
Materials and Methods
Evidence on diet and physical activity as determinants and risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity was systematically extracted from existing reviews and a systematic search for recent meta-analyses, then collated and analysed. The WCRF Continuous Update Project Expert Panel drew conclusions about which exposures influence risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity, using pre-defined criteria that included evidence of biological plausibility.
The Panel identified strong evidence that several diet and physical activity related exposures influence the risk of weight gain, overweight and obesity in adults and children (see table 1). Separate conclusions were drawn for adults and children in relation to screen time, considered a marker of sedentary time.
However, the Panel noted that as exposures tend to cluster, physiologically interact and share common biological mechanisms, they should not be regarded as absolutely ‘singular'but an integrated concept of interrelated exposures within a pattern of lifestyle.
Screen time (adults)‘Fast foods’‘Western type’ diet
For full list of footnotes, see Energy Balance and Body Fatness report(1).
Healthy dietary patterns help prevent excess weight gain. Achieving such patterns requires attention to the broader economic, environmental and social factors that influence and constrain people's behaviour. The findings of this report support the need for evidence-based public health policy to help create health-enabling environments, particularly for children and adolescents. The WCRF International MOVING framework(2) presents a package of policies to promote physical activity, which alongside wider public health policy can help address the multiple drivers of overweight and obesity.
We describe a novel dietary assessment strategy to estimate usual food intake in the ongoing large-scale multi-center German National Cohort (GNC). The dietary assessment is based on three 24 h food lists (24h-FL) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) enriched by information from the representative German National Nutrition Survey II (NVS II). The novelty of this dietary assessment strategy is based on separating the probability of food intake from daily consumption amounts. The probability of consumption is estimated from 24h-FLs used in the GNC. To estimate daily consumption amounts, the already collected data of the NVS II are used. The 24h-FL simplifies the question on food consumption for all foods asked to consumption or not and so the questionnaire can be completed in about 10 minutes, reducing the burden on study participants. As proof of concept, we applied the assessment strategy to pretest data collected in 2012 to 2013 to assess the feasibility of the instruments. In brief, the novel dietary assessment strategy comprises three steps. First, the individuals’ consumption probability is estimated by three 24h-FLs and one FFQ applying a logistic linear mixed model adjusted for characteristics of the participants. Second, person-specific daily consumption amounts are estimated from the NVS II applying a linear mixed model taking the characteristics of the participants into account. Third, usual food intake is estimated by the consumption probability multiplied by person-specific daily amounts. Usual intake of 41 food groups in 318 men and 377 women were estimated. Of those participants who completed the first 24h-FL, 84.4, and 68.5% completed the second and third 24h-FL, respectively. No associations were observed between probability to participate and lifestyle factors. The estimated usual food intake distributions were in a plausible range as shown by comparing the estimated energy intake to the energy needs approximated by estimated total energy expenditure. Total energy was estimated to be 2,707 kcal/day for men and 2,103 kcal/day for women. With a few exceptions, the estimated food-based consumption probabilities did not differ considerably between men and women. The differences in energy intake between men and women were mainly due to their differences in the estimated person-specific daily amounts. As a conclusion, plausible but not validated values for usual food intake were derived in the pretest study, so that the combination of three repeated 24h-FLs, an FFQ and person-specific daily amounts from an external source is a feasible strategy for dietary assessment.
We evaluated the performance of the food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered to participants in the US NIH–AARP (National Institutes of Health–American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study, a cohort of 566 404 persons living in the USA and aged 50–71 years at baseline in 1995.
The 124-item FFQ was evaluated within a measurement error model using two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) as the reference.
Participants were from six states (California, Florida, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina and Louisiana) and two metropolitan areas (Atlanta, Georgia and Detroit, Michigan).
A subgroup of the cohort consisting of 2053 individuals.
For the 26 nutrient constituents examined, estimated correlations with true intake (not energy-adjusted) ranged from 0.22 to 0.67, and attenuation factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.49. When adjusted for reported energy intake, performance improved; estimated correlations with true intake ranged from 0.36 to 0.76, and attenuation factors ranged from 0.24 to 0.68. These results compare favourably with those from other large prospective studies. However, previous biomarker-based studies suggest that, due to correlation of errors in FFQs and self-report reference instruments such as the 24HR, the correlations and attenuation factors observed in most calibration studies, including ours, tend to overestimate FFQ performance.
The performance of the FFQ in the NIH–AARP Diet and Health Study, in conjunction with the study’s large sample size and wide range of dietary intake, is likely to allow detection of moderate (≥1.8) relative risks between many energy-adjusted nutrients and common cancers.
To specify the principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science.
To identify nutrition, with its application in food and nutrition policy, as a science with great width and breadth of vision and scope, in order that it can fully contribute to the preservation, maintenance, development and sustenance of life on Earth.
A brief overview shows that current conventional nutrition is defined as a biological science, although its governing and guiding principles are implicit only, and no generally agreed definition is evident. Following are agreements on the principles, definition and dimensions of the new nutrition science, made by the authors as participants at a workshop on this theme held on 5–8 April 2005 at the Schloss Rauischholzhausen, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
Nutrition science as here specified will retain its current [classical] identity as a biological science, within a broader and integrated conceptual framework, and will also be confirmed as a social and environmental science. As such it will be concerned with personal and population health, and with planetary health – the welfare and future of the whole physical and living world of which humans are a part.
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