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To integrate electronic clinical decision support tools into clinical practice and to evaluate the impact on indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) use and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).
Design, Setting, and Participants
This 4-phase observational study included all inpatients at a multicampus, academic medical center between 2011 and 2015.
Phase 1 comprised best practices training and standardization of electronic documentation. Phase 2 comprised real-time electronic tracking of IUC duration. In phase 3, a triggered alert reminded clinicians of IUC duration. In phase 4, a new IUC order (1) introduced automated order expiration and (2) required consideration of alternatives and selection of an appropriate indication.
Overall, 2,121 CAUTIs, 179,070 new catheters, 643,055 catheter days, and 2,186 reinsertions occurred in 3·85 million hospitalized patient days during the study period. The CAUTI rate per 10,000 patient days decreased incrementally in each phase from 9·06 in phase 1 to 1·65 in phase 4 (relative risk [RR], 0·182; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·153–0·216; P<·001). New catheters per 1,000 patient days declined from 53·4 in phase 1 to 39·5 in phase 4 (RR, 0·740; 95% CI, 0·730; P<·001), and catheter days per 1,000 patient days decreased from 194·5 in phase 1 to 140·7 in phase 4 (RR, 0·723; 95% CI, 0·719–0·728; P<·001). The reinsertion rate declined from 3·66% in phase 1 to 3·25% in phase 4 (RR, 0·894; 95% CI, 0·834–0·959; P=·0017).
The phased introduction of decision support tools was associated with progressive declines in new catheters, total catheter days, and CAUTIs. Clinical decision support tools offer a viable and scalable intervention to target hospital-wide IUC use and hold promise for other quality improvement initiatives.
Hospitalized influenza patients are often treated with antibiotics empirically while awaiting final diagnosis. The goal of this study was to describe the inappropriate continuation of antibiotics for influenza respiratory tract infections (RTIs).
We retrospectively studied adults admitted to our institution over 2 respiratory flu seasons with positive influenza RTIs. Inappropriate antibiotic duration (IAD) was defined as antibiotic use for >24 hours after a positive influenza test in patients presenting with <72 hours of RTI symptoms and with no other indications of bacterial infection.
During the study period, 322 patients included in this study were admitted for influenza RTI. Respiratory cultures were ordered for 50 of these patients (15.5%) and 71 patients (22%) had a positive chest x-ray, but antibiotics were prescribed to 211 patients (65.5%) on admission. Antibiotics were inappropriately continued in 73 patients (34.5%). Patients receiving IAD had a longer length of stay (LOS) (median, 6 days; range, 4–9 days) compared with those whose antibiotics were discontinued appropriately (median, 5 days; range, 3–8 days) and those who were not treated with antibiotics (median, 4 days; range, 3–6 days; P<.001). However, mortality was similar among these 3 groups: 3 patients (4.1%) from the IAD cohort died; 6 patients (4.3%) from the group with an appropriate antibiotic duration died; and 2 patients [1.8%] from the group given no antibiotics died (P=.510). The 30-day readmission rates were similar as well: 9 patients (12.3%) from the IAD group were readmitted within 30 days; 21 patients (15.2%) from the group with appropriate antibiotic duration were readmitted; and 11 patients (9.9%) from the group given no antibiotics were readmitted (P=.455). Total hospital costs were greater in patients treated with IAD ($10,645; range, $6,485–$18,035) compared with the group treated with appropriate antibiotic duration ($7,479; range, $4,866–$12,922) and the group given no antibiotics $5,961 (range, $4,711–$9,575). Thus, the hospital experienced a median loss in net hospital revenue of $2,076 per IAD patient compared with a patient for which antibiotic duration was appropriate.
The majority of patients with influenza RTI received antibiotics on admission, and 34.5% were inappropriately continued on antibiotics without evidence of bacterial infection, which led to increased LOS, loss of net revenue, and no improvement in outcome. Thus, stewardship initiatives aimed at this population are warranted.
A multi-scale investigation of twin bundles in Fe–22Mn–0.6C (wt%) twinning-induced plasticity steel after tensile deformation has been carried out by truly correlative means; using electron channelling contrast imaging combined with electron backscatter diffraction, high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography on the exact same region of interest in the sample. It was revealed that there was no significant segregation of Mn or C to the twin boundary interfaces.
The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N = 43) and without (N = 52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and noncarrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD noncarriers and carrier subgroups (i.e., heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to noncarriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–10)