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Healthcare workers (HCWs) have a theoretically increased risk of contracting severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) given their occupational exposure. We tested 2,167 HCWs in a London Acute Integrated Care Organisation for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in May and June 2020 to evaluate seroprevalence. We found a seropositivity rate of 31.6% among HCWs.
It has been suggested that vitamin D2 is not very prevalent in the human food chain. However, data from a number of recent intervention studies suggest that the majority of subjects had measurable serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25(OH)D2) concentrations. Serum 25(OH)D2, unlike 25(OH)D3, is not directly influenced by exposure of skin to sun and thus has dietary origins; however, quantifying dietary vitamin D2 is difficult due to the limitations of food composition data. Therefore, the present study aimed to characterise serum 25(OH)D2 concentrations in the participants of the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) in Ireland, and to use these serum concentrations to estimate the intake of vitamin D2 using a mathematical modelling approach. Serum 25(OH)D2 concentration was measured by a liquid chromatography–tandem MS method, and information on diet as well as subject characteristics was obtained from the NANS. Of these participants, 78·7 % (n 884) had serum 25(OH)D2 concentrations above the limit of quantification, and the mean, maximum, 10th, 50th (median) and 90th percentile values of serum 25(OH)D2 concentrations were 3·69, 27·6, 1·71, 2·96 and 6·36 nmol/l, respectively. To approximate the intake of vitamin D2 from these serum 25(OH)D2 concentrations, we used recently published data on the relationship between vitamin D intake and the responses of serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The projected 5th to 95th percentile intakes of vitamin D2 for adults were in the range of 0·9–1·2 and 5–6 μg/d, respectively, and the median intake ranged from 1·7 to 2·3 μg/d. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that 25(OH)D2 concentrations are present in the sera of adults from this nationally representative sample. Vitamin D2 may have an impact on nutritional adequacy at a population level and thus warrants further investigation.
There has been much debate over whether New Age spirituality (NAS) is a useful category and, if so, how best to characterize the phenomena clustered under that heading. Historically minded scholars generally agree, however, on the value of distinguishing between narrower and broader uses of the term “new age”! In the narrower sense, it refers above all to ideas in the writings of post-Theosophist Alice Bailey (1880–1949), which were picked up by the new age networks of the 1950s, many of them UFO related, and transformed into a more activist form by 1960s utopian communities, most notably Findhorn. Te movement, narrowly conceived, was British-based and relied upon occultist traditions that had long been influential there (Melton 1995; Sutcliffe 2003a; Albanese 2007; Hanegraaff 2009: 345). In a more general sense, scholars have used “new age” as a catch-all term for the much more extensive and complex “cultic milieu” of the 1980s and beyond, which was dominated “by the so-called metaphysical and New Tought traditions typical of American alternative culture” (Hanegraaff 2009: 344–5). Sutcliffe depicts this as “a popular hermeneutical shift in the meaning of ‘New Age’ … [such that] at the turn of the 1970s, … ‘New Age’ as apocalyptic emblem of the near future gave way to ‘New Age’ as humanistic idiom of self-realisation in the here-and-now” (Sutcliffe 2003a: 5).
Recent research has established that individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have impaired prospective memory (PM); however, findings regarding differential deficits on time-based versus event-based PM have been less clear. Furthermore, the diagnostic utility of PM measures has received scant attention. Healthy older adults (n = 84) and individuals with aMCI (n = 84) were compared on the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) and two single-trial event-based PM tasks. The aMCI participants showed global impairment on all PM measures. Measures of retrospective memory and complex attention predicted both time and event PM performance for the aMCI group. Each of the PM measures was useful for discriminating aMCI from healthy older adults and the time- and event-based scales of the CAMPROMPT were equivalent in their discriminative ability. Surprisingly, the brief PM tasks were as good as more comprehensive measures of PM (CAMPROMPT) at predicting aMCI. Results indicate that single-trial PM measures, easily integrated into clinical practice, may be useful screening tools for identifying aMCI. As PM requires retrospective memory skills along with complex attention and executive skills, the interaction between these skills may explain the global PM deficits in aMCI and the good discriminative ability of PM for diagnosing aMCI. (JINS, 2012, 18, 295–304)
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes to medication in relation to insight, purpose in life, symptoms and sociodemographic factors among a cohort of stable patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
Method: We included 70 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder attending a Dublin suburban mental health service. All participants were 18 years or older and were excluded if they had a learning disability, acquired brain injury resulting in unconsciousness, and psychosis secondary to a general medical condition or illicit substance misuse. All participants were given self report questionnaires which included Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30), Birchwood Insight Scale, and Purpose in Life test. Symptoms were assessed using the Scale for Assessment of Positive and Negative symptoms. All data was analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.
Results: We found that 86% (n = 60) of the participants had positive attitudes to medication, and 82% (n = 58) had good insight into their illness. Only 27% (n = 19) were found to have a definite purpose in life. There was a significant negative relationship between attitudes to medication and delusions (r = -0.25, n = 70, p < 0.05) and a significant positive relationship between insight and attitudes to medication (r = 0.0.28, n = 70, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Many factors are involved in the multifaceted issue of attitudes to medication. Researchers must realise that these factors do not remain constant and may change with time and over the course of illness and treatment.
Objectives: People with schizophrenia are at increased risk of cardiovascular and endocrine disease. National guidelines recommend the physical health of people with schizophrenia be monitored by primary care, but little is known about whether such people attend primary care. We sought to examine the prevalence of cardiovascular and endocrine disease in a stable population with schizophrenia, and factors associated with attending primary care.
Method: A cross sectional survey of people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder was taken from a larger cohort participating in the Resource for Psychoses and Genomics in Ireland (RPGI) study. Participants were interviewed using standardised clinical assessments, and underwent anthropometric measurements, and further information was collected by medical record review and contacting the general practitioner (GP).
Results: Thirteen percent (n = 14) had established cardiovascular disease and 4.3% (n = 4) had type 2 diabetes. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes were higher than the general population. Sixty-eight point five percent (n = 63) had attended their GP at least once in the previous year. Only 35% self reported a physical illness. Females (p = 0.03), those with both self-reported presence of physical illness (p = 0.007), and diagnosed physical illness (p = 0.001) were more likely to attend their GP. Other psychosocial, psychological and illness related variables did not predict attendance at primary care.
Conclusion: While established patients attend their GP, they had significant unidentified risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is likely that non-attendees at secondary care would fare worse yet.
An increasing number of community physicians are involved in clinical research.Indeed, 60 of industry-funded research is now spent on community based trials. This surge in community based clinical trials has increased the number of clinical trials applications submitted to the drug regulatory agencies by pharmaceutical sponsors. Many have argued that the commercial interests connected to the conduct and outcome of these trials also increases the potential for conflicts of interest for participating physicians. The context in which these trials take place increases the potential for a host of practices that infringe on ethical, legal and clinical obligations of physicians For example, financial recruitment incentives may lead to violations of the inclusion criteria and the consent process. It may result in inappropriate recruitment of patient participants and a blurring of the ethically significant distinctions between treatment and research. In some cases, it may be hard to distinguish research from the marketing of new products and attempts to influencing prescribing patterns.
Correlates and predictors of mood disturbance at 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum were assessed in Irish mothers and their partners.
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Highs Scale were used to assess 370 mothers and their partners. Socio-demographic, clinical and obstetric data were collected at patients' first antenatal visit. Factors associated with EPDS scores of ≥ 13 and Highs scores of ≥ 8 were examined.
On the EPDS 11.4% of mothers scored ≥ 13 at 3 days postpartum and 11% at 6 weeks, while 18.3% of mothers scored ≥ 8 on the Highs Scale at 3 days and 9% at 6 weeks. Scores on the EPDS and Highs Scale were interrelated. Factors associated with EPDS scores of ≥ 13 at 6 weeks were single status, unemployment, unplanned pregnancy, public status and bottle-feeding. The best predictors of EPDS ≥ 13 at 6 weeks were mothers' scores on the EPDS and the Highs Scale at 3 days. Three per cent of partners scored ≥ 13 on the EPDS at 3 days postpartum and 1.2% at 6 weeks.
Factors associated with mothers' mood disturbance were readily identifiable and collected routinely at antenatal intake. Mothers' mood within 3 days of delivery was the best predictor of later postnatal depression. Paternal mood disturbance was rare. Certain women may be at increased risk for postnatal mood disturbance and may be amenable to early identification and intervention.
Within the context of a longitudinal study investigating
outcome for children following traumatic brain injury,
this paper reports on the utility of neuropsychological
testing in predicting academic outcome in children 2 years
following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-nine school-age
children who were admitted to hospital after TBI were assessed
with a battery of neuropsychological and academic measures
at 3 and 24 months postinjury. The neuropsychological battery
included measures of memory, learning, and speed of information
processing. Academic outcome was assessed in terms of post-TBI
change in school placement. According to logistic regression
analysis, change in placement from regular to special education
at 2 years post-TBI was predicted by injury severity and
by neuropsychological performance at 3 months post-TBI.
Findings suggest that neuropsychological testing is useful
in identifying children with special educational needs
subsequent to TBI. (JINS, 1997, 3, 608–616.)
Motivation towards learning was assessed in a class of 3rd, 4th and 5th standard, using a self report scale. Results for children identified as behaviourally deviant were compared with those of their non-disturbed peers. The findings show no significant difference on motivational scores between both groups; behaviourally deviant children differing from their non-disturbed peers only on an informational subscale of judgment.