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Cricothyrotomy is an intervention performed to salvage “can't intubate, can't ventilate” situations. Studies have shown poor accuracy with landmarking the cricothyroid membrane, particularly in female patients by surgeons and anesthesiologists. This study examines the perceived versus actual success rate of landmarking the cricothyroid membrane by resident and staff emergency physicians using obese and non-obese models.
Five male and female volunteers were models. Each model was placed supine, and a point-of-care ultrasound expert landmarked the borders of each cricothyroid membrane; 20 residents and 15 staff emergency physicians were given one attempt to landmark five models. Overall accuracy and accuracy stratified by sex and obesity status were calculated.
Overall landmarking accuracy amongst all participants was 58% (SD 18%). A difference in accuracy was found for obese males (88%) versus obese females (40%) (difference = 48%, 95% CI = 30–65%, p < 0.0001), and non-obese males (77%) versus non-obese females (46%) (difference = 31%, 95% CI = 12–51%, p = 0.004). There was no association between perceived difficulty and success (correlation = 0.07, 95% CI = −0.081–0.214, p = 0.37). Confidence levels overall were higher amongst staff physicians (3.0) than residents (2.7) (difference = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1–0.6, p = 0.02), but there was no correlation between confidence in an attempt and its success (p = 0.33).
We found that physicians demonstrate significantly lower accuracy when landmarking cricothyroid membranes of females. Emergency physicians were unable to predict their own accuracy while landmarking, which can potentially lead to increased failed attempts and a longer time to secure the airway. Improved training techniques may reduce failed attempts and improve the time to secure the airway.
We propose the nasal administration of calcium-enriched physiological salts as a new hygienic intervention with possible therapeutic application as a response to the rapid and tenacious spread of COVID-19. We test the effectiveness of these salts against viral and bacterial pathogens in animals and humans. We find that aerosol administration of these salts to the airways diminishes the exhalation of the small particles that face masks fail to filter and, in the case of an influenza swine model, completely block airborne transmission of disease. In a study of 10 human volunteers (5 less than 65 years and 5 older than 65 years), we show that delivery of a nasal saline comprising calcium and sodium salts quickly (within 15 min) and durably (up to at least 6 h) diminishes exhaled particles from the human airways. Being predominantly smaller than 1 μm, these particles are below the size effectively filtered by conventional masks. The suppression of exhaled droplets by the nasal delivery of calcium-rich saline with aerosol droplet size of around 10 μm suggests the upper airways as a primary source of bioaerosol generation. The suppression effect is especially pronounced (99%) among those who exhale large numbers of particles. In our study, we found this high-particle exhalation group to correlate with advanced age. We argue for a new hygienic practice of nasal cleansing by a calcium-rich saline aerosol, to complement the washing of hands with ordinary soap, use of a face mask, and social distancing.
Our objectives were to identify barriers to the organ donation registration process in Ontario; and to determine the acceptability of using the emergency department (ED) waiting room to provide knowledge and offer opportunities for organ and tissue donor registration.
We conducted a paper based in-person survey over nine days in March and April 2017. The survey instrument was created in English using existing literature and expert opinion, pilot tested and then translated into French. Data was collected from patients and visitors in an urban academic Canadian tertiary care ED waiting room. All adults in the waiting room were approached to participate during study periods. We excluded patients who were too ill and required immediate treatment.
The number of attempted surveys was 324; 67 individuals (20.7%) declined participation. A total of 257 surveys were distributed and five were returned blank. This gave us a response rate of 77.8% with 252 completed surveys. The median age group was 51–60 years old with 55.9% female. Forty-six percent reported their religion as Christian and 34.1% did not declare a religious affiliation. 44.1% were already registered donors. Most participants agreed or were neutral that the ED waiting room was an acceptable place to provide information on donation, and for registration as an organ and tissue donor (83.3% and 82.1%, respectively).
Individuals waiting in the ED are generally supportive of using the waiting room for distributing information regarding organ and tissue donation, and to allow donor registration.
Trauma code activation is initiated by emergency physicians using physiological and anatomical criteria, mechanism of injury, and patient demographic factors. Our objective was to identify factors associated with delayed trauma team activation.
We assessed consecutive cases from a regional trauma database from January 2008 to March 2014. We defined a delay in trauma code activation as a time greater than 30 minutes from the time of arrival. We conducted univariate analysis for factors potentially influencing trauma team activation, and we subsequently used multiple logistic regression analysis models for delayed activation in relation to mortality, length of stay, and time to operative management.
Patients totalling 846 were included for our analysis; 4.1% (35/846) of trauma codes were activated after 30 minutes. Mean age was 40.8 years in the early group versus 49.2 in the delayed group (p=0.01). Patients were over age 70 years in 7.6% in the early activation group versus 17.1% in the delayed group (p=0.04). There was no significant difference in sex, type of injury, injury severity, or time from injury between the two groups. There was no significant difference in mortality, median length of stay, or median time to operative management.
Delayed activation is linked with increasing age with no clear link to increased mortality. Given the severe injuries in the delayed cohort that required activation of the trauma team, further emphasis on the older trauma patient and interventions to recognize this vulnerable population should be made.
In A Global Political Morality, Michael J. Perry addresses several related questions in human rights theory, political theory and constitutional theory. He begins by explaining what the term 'human right' means and then elaborates and defends the morality of human rights, which is the first truly global morality in human history. Perry also pursues the implications of the morality of human rights for democratic governance and for the proper role of courts - especially the US Supreme Court - in protecting constitutionally entrenched human rights. The principal constitutional controversies discussed in the book are capital punishment, race-based affirmative action, same-sex marriage, physician-assisted suicide and abortion.