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It examines the dispute solution options the contracting parties have when their cross-border transaction turns sour. The traditional answer is that international arbitration is the best option to govern cross-border disputes. Yet recent trends have improved the enforceability of foreign judgments. This chapter argues that the foreign judgment is catching up with the foreign arbitral award in terms of enforceability. After introducing the consistent enforceability of foreign judgments in common law countries, it highlights a number of contemporary trends that are gradually improving the enforceability of foreign judgments in civil law countries. In the end, it discusses the fledgling potential of the 2005 Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements to standardise the law and practice of enforcement of judgments made by designated courts in exclusive choice of court agreements.
The U.S. federal government awards a priority review voucher (“PRV”) to a pharmaceutical manufacturer after the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) approves a product for one of a list of voucher-eligible indications. The voucher, which can be transferred or sold, allows the company to accelerate the review timeline of another product for any indication. The PRV program was proposed in 2006 as an incentive for research and development for neglected diseases, such as dengue and leishmaniasis.
Neglected tropical diseases (“NTDs”) predominantly affect the world’s poorest populations and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their global public health importance, neglected diseases were estimated to account for less than 1% of pharmaceutical research and development expenditures. The voucher program was intended to address this gap between investment and disease burden: “[t]he major obstacle to stimulating the R&D of new medicines for neglected diseases is lowincome nations' inability to pay for such medicines.” The voucher would provide an additional financial incentive to fund clinical development of these products without requiring additional appropriations from Congress.
We study the size and the external path length of random tries and show that they are asymptotically independent in the asymmetric case but strongly dependent with small periodic fluctuations in the symmetric case. Such an unexpected behavior is in sharp contrast to the previously known results on random tries, that the size is totally positively correlated to the internal path length and that both tend to the same normal limit law. These two dependence examples provide concrete instances of bivariate normal distributions (as limit laws) whose components have correlation either zero or one or periodically oscillating. Moreover, the same type of behavior is also clarified for other classes of digital trees such as bucket digital trees and Patricia tries.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
A class of games for finding a leader among a group of candidates is studied in detail. This class covers games based on coin tossing and rock-paper-scissors as special cases and its complexity exhibits similar stochastic behaviors: either of logarithmic mean and bounded variance or of exponential mean and exponential variance. Many applications are also discussed.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m2) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
Group III-Sb compound semiconductors are promising materials for future CMOS circuits. Especially, In1-xGaxSb is considered as a complimentary p-type channel material to n-type In1-xGaxAs MOSFET due to the superior hole transport properties and similar chemical properties in III-Sb’s to those of InGaAs. The heteroepitaxial growth of In1-xGaxSb on Si substrate has significant advantage for volume fabrication of III-V ICs. However large lattice mismatch between InGaSb and Si results in many growth-related defects (micro twins, threading dislocations and antiphase domain boundaries); these defects also act as deep acceptor levels. Accordingly, unintentional doping in InGaSb films causes additional scattering, increase junction leakages and affects the interface properties. In this paper, we studied the correlations between of defects and hole carrier densities in GaSb and strained In1-xGaxSb quantum well layers by using various designs of metamorphic superlattice buffers.
This paper studies a special type of binomial splitting process. Such a process can be used to model a high dimensional corner parking problem as well as determining the depth of random PATRICIA (practical algorithm to retrieve information coded in alphanumeric) tries, which are a special class of digital tree data structures. The latter also has natural interpretations in terms of distinct values in independent and identically distributed geometric random variables and the occupancy problem in urn models. The corresponding distribution is marked by a logarithmic mean and a bounded variance, which is oscillating, if the binomial parameter p is not equal to ½, and asymptotic to one in the unbiased case. Also, the limiting distribution does not exist as a result of the periodic fluctuations.
The Fair Trade Law of 1991 (FTL), the most recent amendments to which were promulgated in February 2002; the Enforcement Rules to the FTL, last revised in June 2002; and the Guidelines for the Handling of Combination Filings, first promulgated in July 2006 (‘the Guidelines’), make up the principal legislation concerning merger and acquisition, unfair competition and monopoly in Taiwan. Article 6 of the FTL places mergers and acquisitions in the broader category of ‘combinations of enterprises’. The 2002 amendments to the FTL and its related Enforcement Rules changed the filing process for combinations from an approval system to a notification system, and the Guidelines introduced a two-tier review system by classifying combination filings into ‘simplified’ and ‘general’ filings.
Decision-making bodies and enforcement authority(ies)
At the national level, the Fair Trade Commission (FTC) is the government authority governing mergers and other types of combination under the FTL. The FTC is empowered to examine and investigate possible infringements of the FTL and to take action against wrongdoers by imposing fines and other penalties. The FTC is also empowered to order the dissolution of any combinations that infringe the provisions of the FTL. The FTC will investigate complaints against combinations that are affected without the consent of the FTC, but may also investigate matters on its own initiative.
This article traces the development of the definition of “investment” under Article 25(1) of the ICSID Convention. It proposes that the definition should act as an outer limit to the usually broad definition of investment (encompassing every kind of asset) in international investment agreements (IIAs). The article discusses the various characteristics (hallmarks) of an investment which should constitute the definition. It argues that the hallmark of “significant contribution to economic development” can be refined to reduce uncertainty while giving effect to the intent of the ICSID contracting states by drawing a distinction between an ordinary commercial transaction and an investment. Recent IIA definitions of investment adopting Salini hallmarks show that states adopt the “every kind of asset” definition of investment in IIAs out of a concern that the form which the investment may take should not be restricted and that states do not necessarily view the Salini hallmarks as unwelcome.
Advocates of expanded mental health treatment assert that mental
disorders are as disabling as physical disorders, but little evidence
supports this assertion.
To establish the disability and treatment of specific mental and physical
disorders in high-income and low- and middle-income countries.
Community epidemiological surveys were administered in 15 countries
through the World Health Organization World Mental Health (WMH) Survey
Respondents in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries
attributed higher disability to mental disorders than to the commonly
occurring physical disorders included in the surveys. This pattern held
for all disorders and also for treated disorders. Disaggregation showed
that the higher disability of mental than physical disorders was limited
to disability in social and personal role functioning, whereas disability
in productive role functioning was generally comparable for mental and
Despite often higher disability, mental disorders are under-treated
compared with physical disorders in both high-income and in low- and
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
In a tree, a level consists of all those nodes that are the same distance from the root. We derive asymptotic approximations to the correlation coefficients of two level sizes in random recursive trees and binary search trees. These coefficients undergo sharp sign-changes when one level is fixed and the other is varying. We also propose a new means of deriving an asymptotic estimate for the expected width, which is the number of nodes at the most abundant level. Crucial to our methods of proof is the uniformity achieved by singularity analysis.