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Sex-related differences in psychopathology are known phenomena, with externalizing and internalizing symptoms typically more common in boys and girls, respectively. However, the neural correlates of these sex-by-psychopathology interactions are underinvestigated, particularly in adolescence.
Participants were 14 years of age and part of the IMAGEN study, a large (N = 1526) community-based sample. To test for sex-by-psychopathology interactions in structural grey matter volume (GMV), we used whole-brain, voxel-wise neuroimaging analyses based on robust non-parametric methods. Psychopathological symptom data were derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
We found a sex-by-hyperactivity/inattention interaction in four brain clusters: right temporoparietal-opercular region (p < 0.01, Cohen's d = −0.24), bilateral anterior and mid-cingulum (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.18), right cerebellum and fusiform (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.20) and left frontal superior and middle gyri (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.26). Higher symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention were associated with lower GMV in all four brain clusters in boys, and with higher GMV in the temporoparietal-opercular and cerebellar-fusiform clusters in girls.
Using a large, sex-balanced and community-based sample, our study lends support to the idea that externalizing symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention may be associated with different neural structures in male and female adolescents. The brain regions we report have been associated with a myriad of important cognitive functions, in particular, attention, cognitive and motor control, and timing, that are potentially relevant to understand the behavioural manifestations of hyperactive and inattentive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering sex in our efforts to uncover mechanisms underlying psychopathology during adolescence.
Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a weed management technique that intercepts and destroys weed seeds before they replenish the soil weed seedbank and can be used to control herbicide-resistant weeds in global cropping systems. Wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) is a problematic, globally distributed weed species that is considered highly susceptible to HWSC, as it retains much of its seed on the plant during grain harvest. However, previous studies have demonstrated that R. raphanistrum is capable of adapting its life cycle, in particular its flowering time, to allow individuals more time to mature and potentially shed seeds before harvest, thereby evading HWSC interception. This study compared the vegetative growth plus physiological and ecological fitness of an early-flowering R. raphanistrum biotype with an unselected genetically related biotype to determine whether physiological costs of early flowering exist when in competition with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Early flowering time adaptation in R. raphanistrum did not change the relative growth rate or competitive ability of R. raphanistrum. However, the height of first flower was reduced in the early flowering time–selected population, indicating that this population would retain more pods below the typical harvest cutting height (15 cm) used in HWSC. The presence of wheat competition (160 to 200 plants m−2) increased flowering height in the early flowering time–selected population, which would likely increase the susceptibility of early-flowering R. raphanistrum plants to HWSC. Overall, early-flowering adaption in R. raphanistrum is a possible strategy to escape being captured by the HWSC; however, increasing crop competition is likely to be an effective strategy to maintain the effectiveness of HWSC.
Tracing the flow of solid matter during an explosion requires a rugged tag that can be measured by a unique identifiable signature. Silica-covered semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) provide a unique and tunable photoluminescent signature that emits from within a sacrificial outer layer. Five types of silica-covered zinc sulfide QDs were synthesized and covalently bound to commercial luminescent powders. The combination of five dots and five powders enables a matrix of 25 unique tags. The tracers are shown to be tolerant of environments associated with chemical explosives and provides a unique tag to evaluate debris fields.
Labeling a student as socially maladjusted has been a source of controversy since 1975. The controversy persists because, to date, there is no accepted definition of the term “social maladjustment”, and no guidance provided by IDEA on what school teams should consider when using the exclusion for determining if a child is eligible for special education under the category of an emotional disturbance. When school teams determine a child is socially maladjusted, this classification is often used to exclude children demonstrating objectionable behaviors (i.e., delinquent, disruptive, and impulsive actions) from special education services and protections. Without tailored school interventions, students are disproportionately exposed to disciplinary actions, and other mental health services (e.g., MTSS) become secondary, if they are offered at all. Assessment strategies that identify the underlying causes of aggressive behaviors in children can inform school teams on how to provide therapeutic environments, approaches to discipline and accountability, and differential skill development.
Tobacco smoking remains one of the leading causes of preventable illness and death and is heritable with complex underpinnings. Converging evidence suggests a contribution of the polygenic risk for smoking to the use of tobacco and other substances. Yet, the underlying brain mechanisms between the genetic risk and tobacco smoking remain poorly understood.
Genomic, neuroimaging, and self-report data were acquired from a large cohort of adolescents from the IMAGEN study (a European multicenter study). Polygenic risk scores (PGRS) for smoking were calculated based on a genome-wide association study meta-analysis conducted by the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium. We examined the interrelationships among the genetic risk for smoking initiation, brain structure, and the number of occasions of tobacco use.
A higher smoking PGRS was significantly associated with both an increased number of occasions of tobacco use and smaller cortical volume of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Furthermore, reduced cortical volume within this cluster correlated with greater tobacco use. A subsequent path analysis suggested that the cortical volume within this cluster partially mediated the association between the genetic risk for smoking and the number of occasions of tobacco use.
Our data provide the first evidence for the involvement of the OFC in the relationship between smoking PGRS and tobacco use. Future studies of the molecular mechanisms underlying tobacco smoking should consider the mediation effect of the related neural structure.
To assess the prevalence of autism traits in individuals accessing gender affirming treatments, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in the regional specialist gender services in Northern Ireland.
One hundred and twenty-three individuals (38 adolescents and 69 adults) currently attending or who previously attended specialist gender services in Northern Ireland were recruited. Fifty-six individuals assigned male at birth (AMAB) and 66 individuals assigned female at birth (AFAB) took part in the study. Main outcome measures: Autism Quotient (AQ), Cambridge Behavior Scale (EQ), and RAADS-14.
Autism trait prevalence rates of 19.5% (AQ); 25.4% (RAADS-14); and 35.8% (poor empathy traits). A combined measure comprising all three provided a prevalence of 17.2%. There were no mean differences in the scores between AMAB (assigned male at birth) individuals and AFAB (assigned female at birth) individuals.
Autism traits present additional challenges during the assessment and treatment of individuals with gender dysphoria. Autism screening tools can aid in the identification of individual with additional needs.
Northern Ireland presents itself as an anomaly – a region in which only 31.8% of doctors enter into any training programme after completion of the Foundation Programme, but where Core Psychiatry has been consistently oversubscribed. Here, we aim to find what other regions can learn from this success. All doctors of any grade, working in psychiatry, who had been though the Foundation Programme were questioned on their motivations for becoming a psychiatry trainee.
Sixty-two doctors currently working in psychiatry responded, including over 60% of current trainees, and 45% stated they had not considered a career in psychiatry before their foundation attachment. Over 80% preferred foundation placements in FY2 only, rather than in either foundation year 1 or FY2.
This survey identifies that for the majority of people who ultimately chose to train in psychiatry, in a region that has consistently attracted candidates to core and higher level training, completion of a foundation psychiatry post was an influencing factor in this decision. A strong majority of doctors prefer the foundation psychiatry placement to be offered in FY2.
People who experience sexual violence are highly likely to experience psychological and/or mental health (MH) problems as a result. People who use MH services often have a history of sexual assault and are also likely to be revictimised as an adult. Yet despite there being a very clear association, MH services are not yet performing routine enquiry, and even if they do, are not confident about how to record and manage disclosures. There is some emerging evidence that people with MH problems are exposed to sexual violence in inpatient MH settings, perpetrated by both other patients or members of staff. In this editorial, we explore the evidence to support a wider focus on sexual violence as a part of routine care, as well as some recommendations about how staff can more effectively discuss sexual issues including that of sexual victimisation.
Introduction: Lewis–Sumner syndrome (LSS) is a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy described in 1982. Methods: We reviewed the charts of nine LSS patients in neurological care for their symptoms, response to different treatment regimens, and pattern of nerve involvement. Results: One patient had an Adie’s pupil. Every patient studied had median nerve involvement. Seven of nine patients required intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy and all showed improvement with IVIg. Four of nine patients received oral steroid therapy and had some improvement. Two of nine patients received azathioprine to little effect. Two of nine patients experienced significant trauma while receiving neurological follow-up and their symptoms worsened to a clinically significant degree afterward. Discussion: We noticed a possible association between trauma and symptom severity in cases of LSS with preexisting neurological follow-up. We hypothesize that physical trauma exacerbates LSS. To our knowledge, this is an unreported phenomenon.
Climate change mitigation relies increasingly on clean technologies such as renewable energy. Despite widespread success, further deployment of renewables has been met with resistance from voters and governments in several countries. How resilient is the renewable energy industry to adverse political events? I use the unexpected election of Donald Trump in the 2016 U.S. presidential race to study this question. As a vocal critic of renewables and a supporter of fossil fuels, his election is a plausible negative shock to the renewable energy sector. I examine stock market data to gauge the reaction of investors. I find that renewable energy stocks were adversely affected by the election. Overall, they experienced a cumulative abnormal loss in share values of about 6 percent on average over the twenty days that followed the election. However, I find that the negative effect is concentrated among non-U.S. firms. U.S. firms, on average, emerged unscathed. Non-U.S. companies, on the other hand, lost over 14 percent of their value in the aftermath of the election. This suggests that markets are more concerned by increasing obstacles to international business than a decrease of federal support for renewables.
The Brittany region of France is located in a low seismicity intraplate zone. Most of the instrumented earthquakes are limited to a shallow crustal depth without surface rupture. A paleoseismological analysis was performed on deposits on the Crozon Peninsula and in the Elorn estuary. We highlight hydroplastic deformations induced by liquefaction leading to clay diapirism, which were likely triggered by past earthquakes. This diapirism seems to be frequent in continental nonconsolidated sediments and to develop on the inherited tectonic structures, when a shallow water table and confining layers exist. Timing of deformation is dated using paleoenvironmental data, and electron spin resonance and infrared-stimulated luminescence dating methods. Two seismic periods were identified in western Europe during early Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 10 (~380 ka) and early MIS 8 (~280–265 ka). The lack of similar deformations affecting the Holocene tidal deposits in the Bay of Brest suggests that the magnitude of the triggering paleoearthquakes is probably higher (Mw ~6) than the recent events (Mw 5.4). These unusual intraplate major paleoearthquakes need specific factors affecting the far-field crustal stress loading to be triggered, such as a brief acceleration of the Africa-Eurasia lithospheric plate convergence, glacio-isostatic stress perturbations associated with the onset of major glaciations in northern Europe, or other processes induced by orbital forcing.
Abnormalities in reward circuit function are considered a core feature of addiction. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether these abnormalities stem from chronic drug use, a genetic predisposition, or both.
In the present study, we investigated this issue using a large sample of adolescent children by applying structural equation modeling to examine the effects of several dopaminergic polymorphisms of the D1 and D2 receptor type on the reward function of the ventral striatum (VS) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and whether this relationship predicted the propensity to engage in early alcohol misuse behaviors at 14 years of age and again at 16 years of age.
The results demonstrated a regional specificity with which the functional polymorphism rs686 of the D1 dopamine receptor (DRD1) gene and Taq1A of the ANKK1 gene influenced medial and lateral OFC activation during reward anticipation, respectively. Importantly, our path model revealed a significant indirect relationship between the rs686 of the DRD1 gene and early onset of alcohol misuse through a medial OFC × VS interaction.
These findings highlight the role of D1 and D2 in adjusting reward-related activations within the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, as well as in the susceptibility to early onset of alcohol misuse.
A critical question in invasion biology involves the relative importance of propagule rain and community invasibility. For plant invasions, invasibility is often related to disturbance, but few studies of forest invaders have simultaneously investigated both canopy and ground-level disturbance. We investigated the relative importance of seed rain, canopy disturbance, and soil disturbance in a mature forest in Maryland on the recruitment of four invasive species: wine raspberry (Rubus phoenicolasius Maxim.), Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora Thunb.), and Japanese stiltgrass [Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus]. Using complete censuses of a 9-ha plot at two points in time (2011–12 and 2014), we mapped new recruits, and related their locations to canopy and soil disturbance, as well as to a seed rain index based on locations of reproducing plants and seed-dispersal kernels.
We found that propagule rain, as measured by the seed rain index, was a significant predictor of recruitment for B. thunbergii, R. phoenicolasius, and M. vimineum. For R. multiflora, seed sources were not located, precluding assessment of propagule rain, but recruitment was linked to canopy disturbance, as was recruitment of M. vimineum. However, because reproduction of R. phoenicolasius and, in some years, of B. thunbergii is higher in treefall gaps, these gaps experience higher propagule rain, with the result that recruitment is indirectly associated with these gaps. Ground-layer disturbance was an important predictor of recruitment only for B. thunbergii. Our findings reveal that the importance of propagule rain is the most consistent driver of recruitment, but canopy or ground-layer disturbance promotes recruitment of some invasive plant species.
To achieve a reliable radiocarbon (14C) date for an object, any contamination that may be of a different age must be removed prior to dating. Samples that have been conserved with treatments such as adhesives, varnishes or consolidants can pose a particular challenge to 14C dating. At the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU), common examples of such substances encountered include shellac, the acrylic polymers Paraloid B-67 and B-72, and vinyl acetate-derived polymers (e.g. PVA). Here, a non-carbon-containing absorbent substrate called Chromosorb® was deliberately contaminated with a range of varieties or brands of these conservation treatments, as well as two cellulose nitrate lacquers. A selection of chemical pretreatments was tested for their efficiency at removing them. While the varieties of shellac and Paraloid tested were completely removed with some treatments (water/methanol and acetone/methanol/chloroform sequential washes, respectively), no method was found that was capable of completely removing any of the vinyl acetate-derived materials or the cellulose nitrate lacquers. While Chromosorb is not an exact analog of archaeological wood or bone, for example, this study suggests that it may be possible to remove aged shellac and Paraloid from archaeological specimens with standard organic solvent-acid-base-acid pretreatments, but it may be significantly more difficult to remove vinyl acetate-derived polymers and cellulose nitrate lacquers sufficiently to provide reliable 14C dates. The four categories of conservation treatment studied demonstrate characteristic FTIR spectra, while highlighting subtle chemical and molecular differences between different varieties of shellac, Paraloid and cellulose nitrate lacquers, and significant differences between the vinyl acetate derivatives.
From grassroots conflicts to great power relations, this book explores some of the key concepts, methodologies, and dilemmas of researching Asia-Pacific affairs. The book deals with key questions about the Asia Pacific: Why should we study policy from the "ground up"? What are the human considerations for societies in conflict? Why is regionalism important and how do global powers play a role? Should Asia-Pacific researchers embrace the design-based revolution in the social sciences? Muddy Boots and Smart Suits is for students, scholars, and policymakers in the region looking for a new way to understand local, regional, and global security challenges.