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Background: Urine cultures are the most common microbiological tests in the outpatient setting and heavily influence treatment of suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs). Antibiotics for UTI are usually prescribed on an empiric basis in primary care before the urine culture results are available. However, culture results may be needed to confirm a UTI diagnosis and to verify that the correct antibiotic was prescribed. Although urine cultures are considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of UTI, cultures can easily become contaminated during collection. We determined the prevalence, predictors, and antibiotic use associated with contaminated urine cultures in 2 adult safety net primary care clinics. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of visits with provider-suspected UTI in which a urine culture was ordered (November 2018–March 2020). Patient demographics, culture results, and prescription orders were captured for each visit. Culture results were defined as no culture growth, contaminated (ie, mixed flora, non-uropathogens, or ≥3 bacteria isolated on culture), low-count positive (growth between 100 and 100,000 CFU/mL), and high-count positive (>100,000 CFU/mL). A multivariable multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with contaminated culture results. Results: There were 1,265 visits with urine cultures: 264 (20.9%) had no growth, 694 (54.9%) were contaminated, 159 (12.6%) were low counts, and 148 (11.7%) were high counts. Encounter-level factors are presented in Table 1. Female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 15.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.21–23.46; P < .001), pregnancy (aOR, 13.98; 95% CI, 7.93–4.67; P < .001), and obesity (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI 1.31–2.77; P < .001) were independently associated with contaminated cultures. Of 264 patients whose urine cultures showed no growth, 36 (14%) were prescribed an antibiotic. Of 694 patients with contaminated cultures, 153 (22%) were prescribed an antibiotic (Figure 1). Conclusions: More than half of urine cultures were contaminated, and 1 in 5 patients were treated with antibiotics. Reduction of contamination should improve patient care by providing a more accurate record of the organism in the urine (if any) and its susceptibilities, which are relevant to managing future episodes of UTI in that patient. Optimizing urine collection represents a diagnostic stewardship opportunity in primary care.
Funding: This study was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (grant no. UM1AI104681). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
Colleges and universities around the world engaged diverse strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Baylor University, a community of ˜22,700 individuals, was 1 of the institutions which resumed and sustained operations. The key strategy was establishment of multidisciplinary teams to develop mitigation strategies and priority areas for action. This population-based team approach along with implementation of a “Swiss Cheese” risk mitigation model allowed small clusters to be rapidly addressed through testing, surveillance, tracing, isolation, and quarantine. These efforts were supported by health protocols including face coverings, social distancing, and compliance monitoring. As a result, activities were sustained from August 1 to December 8, 2020. There were 62,970 COVID-19 tests conducted with 1435 people testing positive for a positivity rate of 2.28%. A total of 1670 COVID-19 cases were identified with 235 self-reports. The mean number of tests per week was 3500 with approximately 80 of these positive (11/d). More than 60 student tracers were trained with over 120 personnel available to contact trace, at a ratio of 1 per 400 university members. The successes and lessons learned provide a framework and pathway for similar institutions to mitigate the ongoing impacts of COVID-19 and sustain operations during a global pandemic.
Introduction to Education provides pre-service teachers with an overview of the context, craft and practice of teaching in Australian schools as they commence the journey from learner to classroom teacher. Each chapter poses questions about the nature of teaching students, and guides readers though the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. Incorporating recent research and theoretical literature, Introduction to Education presents a critical consideration of the professional, policy and curriculum contexts of teaching in Australia. The book covers theoretical topics in chapters addressing assessment, planning, safe learning environments, and working with colleagues, families, carers and communities. More practical chapters discuss professional experience and building a career after graduation. Rigorous in conception and practical in scope, Introduction to Education welcomes new educators to the theory and practical elements of teaching, learning, and professional practice.
Over the last dozen or so years, countries with laws based on the Copyright Act 1911 (UK) have prioritized the issue of copyright exceptions in their law reform agendas. In each of these countries, a central question has related to the desirability of injecting greater flexibility into exceptions, most notably through the introduction of a “fair use” provision in addition to, or perhaps replacing much of, the existing closed-list system. The resulting statutory reforms have varied. Sri Lanka and Israel, for example, have both adopted a US-style fair use defense, along with a small number of specific exceptions, in their new copyright laws of 2003 and 2007. Singapore has also enacted an open-ended provision, albeit in the form of extended fair dealing rather than fair use. This was achieved by amending one of the purpose-limited fair dealing exceptions to allow it to apply to (almost) any use, with the many closed-list exceptions otherwise retained. In contrast, the reforms of Canada and the UK have – in terms of drafting choices – stayed closer to the existing infrastructure, with the addition of new fair dealing purposes directed to education, parody, and (in the UK) caricature, pastiche and quotation, and the introduction of new detailed exceptions to accommodate specific practices such as user-generated content, private copying, and data mining. The Australian reform experience has been less fruitful. After some expansion of exceptions (albeit within the closed-list model) in 2006, an impasse arose following strong calls for fair use from two major law reform inquiries. Despite the level of attention already given to copyright exceptions, the Australian government initiated yet another round of consultation in relation to reform options in 2018. There may finally be some progress, as the Australian government announced in August 2020 that it intends to make a series of reforms to the Australian copyright statute, including a new fair dealing exception for non-commercial quotation, a limitation on liability for use of orphaned works, and reforms to certain specific exceptions.
In its first national strategy on dementia, the Government of Canada has highlighted the need to improve quality of care for individuals living with dementia, with emphasis on following best practices and evidence in care delivery and providing care staff access to education and training. It is also known that the design of the physical environment of care homes is integral to the care experience of individuals living with dementia. Therefore, this study aims to identify the best national and international practices implemented in care homes for people living with dementia in: (1) education, training, staffing, and care practices; and (2) environmental design and physical infrastructure, through the review of relevant grey literature. This article highlights key recommendations for improving the quality of care for residents living with dementia in care homes, such as: (1) facilitating translation of training into practice, (2) maintaining consistent staffing levels, and (3) designing care homes to facilitate wayfinding, accessibility, safety, comfort, appropriate sensory stimulation, familiarity, and homelikeness. The findings from this review are expected to inform the development of guidelines for a provincial dementia-friendly care home designation program and various advocacy efforts to help achieve the objectives of the national strategy on dementia.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Domestic dogs display complex roaming behaviours, which need to be captured to more realistically model the spread of rabies. We have previously shown that roaming behaviours of domestic dogs can be categorised as stay-at-home, roamer and explorer in the Northern Peninsular Area (NPA), Queensland, Australia. These roaming behaviours are likely to cause heterogeneous contact rates that influence the speed or pattern of rabies spread in a dog population. The aim of this study was to define contact spatial kernels using the overlap of individual dog utilisation distributions to describe the daily probability of contact between pairs of dogs exhibiting these three a priori roaming behaviours. We further aimed to determine if the kernels lead to different predicted rabies outbreaks (outbreak duration and number of rabid dogs) by incorporating the spatial kernels into a previously developed rabies spread model for the NPA. Spatial kernels created with both dogs in a pair being explorers or one dog explorer and one dog roamer (who roamed away from their residence) produced short but large outbreaks compared with spatial kernels with at least one stay-at-home dog. Outputs from this model incorporating heterogeneous contacts demonstrate how roaming behaviours influence disease spread in domestic dog populations.
Catatonia is an underrecognized neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting approximately 10% of individuals hospitalized on inpatient psychiatric units. First-line treatments for this condition include benzodiazepines (BZD) and/or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). However, 20-40% of individuals do not respond to BZD alone and ECT is not always accessible. Second generation antipsychotics (SGA) have been used to treat catatonia in these circumstances. Here, we review the literature pertaining to the efficacy and safety of SGA in the treatment of catatonia.
We conducted a PubMed search for articles linking catatonia to antipsychotics, under the search heading “catatonia” or “kahlbaum” and “risperidone”, “amisulpride”, “iloperidone”, “olanzapine”, “aripiprazole”, “paliperidone”, “clozapine”, “brexpiprazole”, or “cariprazine”. Reports commenting on SGA treatment efficacy and/or their role in the development of catatonia were included in the analysis. Selected articles were reviewed for patient demographics, psychiatric/medical history, symptoms, cause of catatonia and treatment, and co-administered agents. For each SGA, we calculated the number of cases in which catatonia was likely improved with antipsychotic treatment, and the number of cases in which catatonia was precipitated or worsened with antipsychotic treatment (improved/worsened ratio). Case data was assessed using the Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data.
At the time this abstract was written, we reviewed 480 of the original 507 articles. One hundred and seventeen of the 480 met inclusion criteria. There was one randomized controlled trial (RCT), five prospective studies, four retrospective studies and 107 case reports. Of all reviewed literature quetiapine (34:3, 92%), aripiprazole (16:2, 89%), amisulpride (18:1, 95%), andclozapine (19:1, 95%) had the highest improved/worsened ratio, conversely paliperidone (0:5, 0%) had the lowest improved/worsened ratio.
Of the available literature quetiapine, amisulpride, aripiprazole, and clozapine were found to be relatively safe andeffective as treatment options in catatonia, while palipderidone was found to have reports pointing to its role in the development/worsening, but none on the improvement, of catatonia. These results need to be interpreted with caution. In the majority of cases where SGA’s were effective, patients were co- treated with other pharmacologic agents (most frequently benzodiazepines), making it difficult to assess the role of the antipsychotic alone. Also, given that the preponderance of studies were case reports, publication bias may be an important limitation. Further studies are needed to examine the safety and efficacy of SGA in treating catatonia.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.