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Shallow firn cores, in addition to a near-basal ice core, were recovered in 2018 from the Quelccaya ice cap (5470 m a.s.l) in the Cordillera Vilcanota, Peru, and in 2017 from the Nevado Illimani glacier (6350 m a.s.l) in the Cordillera Real, Bolivia. The two sites are ~450 km apart. Despite meltwater percolation resulting from warming, particle-based trace element records (e.g. Fe, Mg, K) in the Quelccaya and Illimani shallow cores retain well-preserved signals. The firn core chronologies, established independently by annual layer counting, show a convincing overlap indicating the two records contain comparable signals and therefore capture similar regional scale climatology. Trace element records at a ~1–4 cm resolution provide past records of anthropogenic emissions, dust sources, volcanic emissions, evaporite salts and marine-sourced air masses. Using novel ultra-high-resolution (120 μm) laser technology, we identify annual layer thicknesses ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 cm in a section of 2000-year-old radiocarbon-dated near-basal ice which compared to the previous annual layer estimates suggests that Quelccaya ice cores drilled to bedrock may be older than previously suggested by depth-age models. With the information collected from this study in combination with past studies, we emphasize the importance of collecting new surface-to-bedrock ice cores from at least the Quelccaya ice cap, in particular, due to its projected disappearance as soon as the 2050s.
Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) has significantly improved outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion. However, despite advances, more than half of patients remain functionally dependent 3 months after their initial stroke. Anesthetic strategy may influence both the technical success of the procedure and overall outcomes. Conventionally, general anesthesia (GA) has been widely used for neuroendovascular procedures, particularly for the distal intracranial circulation, because the complete absence of movement has been considered imperative for procedural success and to minimize complications. In contrast, in patients with acute stroke undergoing EVT, the optimal anesthetic strategy is controversial. Nonrandomized studies suggest GA negatively affects outcomes while the more recent anesthesia-specific RCTs report improved or unchanged outcomes in patients managed with versus without GA, although these findings cannot be generalized to other EVT capable centers due to a number of limitations. Potential explanations for these contrasting results will be addressed in this review including the effect of different anesthetic strategies on cerebral and systemic hemodynamics, revascularization times, and periprocedural complications.
Considering a growing number of metrics and indicators to assess circular economy, it is of paramount importance to shed light on how they differ from traditional approaches, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) or sustainability performance indicators. This study provides new empirical insights on the correlation between LCA, circularity, and sustainability indicator-based approaches. Specifically, the importance lies in analyzing how the results generated by these different approaches can be used to support the design of products that are not only circular, but also sustainable. A practice-based project involving 87 engineering students (divided into 20 groups) is conducted with the aim to compare and improve the circularity and sustainability performance of three product alternatives of lawn mowers (gasoline, electric, autonomous). To do so, the following resources are deployed: 18 midpoints environmental indicators calculated by LCA, eight product circularity indicators, and numerous leading sustainability indicators. Critical analyses on the usability, time efficiency, scientific soundness, and robustness of each approach are drawn, combining quantitative results generated by each group with the feedback of future engineers.