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Fundamental knowledge about the processes that control the functioning of the biophysical workings of ecosystems has expanded exponentially since the late 1960s. Scientists, then, had only primitive knowledge about C, N, P, S, and H2O cycles; plant, animal, and soil microbial interactions and dynamics; and land, atmosphere, and water interactions. With the advent of systems ecology paradigm (SEP) and the explosion of technologies supporting field and laboratory research, scientists throughout the world were able to assemble the knowledge base known today as ecosystem science. This chapter describes, through the eyes of scientists associated with the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory (NREL) at Colorado State University (CSU), the evolution of the SEP in discovering how biophysical systems at small scales (ecological sites, landscapes) function as systems. The NREL and CSU are epicenters of the development of ecosystem science. Later, that knowledge, including humans as components of ecosystems, has been applied to small regions, regions, and the globe. Many research results that have formed the foundation for ecosystem science and management of natural resources, terrestrial environments, and its waters are described in this chapter. Throughout are direct and implicit references to the vital collaborations with the global network of ecosystem scientists.
The Minimal Data Set are demographic and tobacco use questions asked during enrollment at many quitlines. We tested whether these questions can be used to predict program engagement and success, and to evaluate whether findings can inform the tailoring of protocols to disparate populations. We analyzed 7,920 Arizona Smokers' Helpline treatment records to test a Structural Equation Model of the mediating effects of quitline services and short-term cessation outcomes on the relationship between intake questions and 7-month quit rate. Education (b = 0.05), gender (b = 0.03), Medicaid (b = −0.09), longest length of previous quit attempt (b = 0.05), confidence in quitting for 24 h (b = 0.04), environmental risk (b = −0.05), and life stress (b = 0.04) all significantly (P < 0.05) predicted engagement in quitline services. Program engagement had a direct effect on an in-program cessation outcomes construct (b = 0.47) and 7-month quit rate (b = 0.44). This in-program cessation outcomes construct had a significant direct effect on 7-month quit rate (b = −0.12). This model showing the relationship between program engagement and outcomes suggests that tailoring protocols can focus on engaging clients who have historically not taken full advantage of quitline services.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: People living with HIV, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), have increased burden of inflammatory and aging-related comorbidities such as periodontitis. Oral microbiota have been linked to periodontitis, but not in the context of HIV. We aim to compare relationships between the oral microbiome and periodontal disease in HIV+ vs healthy controls. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In an ongoing cohort study we have been recruiting pre- and post-menopausal women with HIV+ on ART for ≥6 months and HIV- controls matched by menopausal status (target n = 30 per arm; currently HIV+: n = 30 post- and 9 pre-M; HIV-: n = 15 post- and 6 pre-M). Patients age <18 or on antibiotics within 3 mos., except prophylaxis, are excluded. Patients provide saliva, then subgingival plaque collection during a dental examination through scaling from six index teeth. Standard CDC/AAP classifications of periodontitis are used. We will perform 16S rRNA and ITS sequencing to profile bacterial and fungal communities in saliva and plaque. Linear mixed effect regression and differential abundance analyses will be used to identify microbial and mycobial oral signatures of periodontal disease severity in HIV+ and HIV- populations. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We found a markedly high prevalence of severe periodontal disease in HIV+ women despite ART (59%, compared to 11% in HIV- controls). In post-menopausal women with HIV, saliva bacterial α- and β-diversity in the saliva differed significantly with periodontal disease severity. Fungal α-diversity was also significantly lower in plaque from teeth with severe loss of tissue attachment (CAL ≥4 mm). We identified bacterial and fungal taxa significantly enriched in post-menopausal HIV+ women with severe compared to no or mild periodontitis. We hypothesize, similarly, associations between the oral microbiome and periodontitis in HIV- controls. However, we expect overall diversity metrics to be significantly altered in HIV+ compared to HIV- patients, indicating long-term dysbiosis despite treatment with ART. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Contrasting associations between the oral microbiome and periodontal disease with respect to HIV will provide evidence for the role of microbiota in accelerated aging phenotype caused by HIV. Our results would also provide rationale for interventions targeting co-morbidities in people living with HIV to account for both inflammation and dysbiosis.
We tested if an adjunctive sleep health (SH) intervention improved smoking cessation treatment response by increasing quit rates. We also examined if baseline sleep, and improvements in sleep in the first weeks of quitting, were associated with quitting at the end of treatment.
Treatment-seeking smokers (N = 29) aged 21–65 years were randomized to a SH intervention (n = 16), or general health (GH) control (n = 13) condition. Participants received six counseling sessions across 15-weeks: SH received smoking cessation + SH counseling; GH received smoking cessation + GH counseling. Counseling began 4-weeks before the target quit date (TQD), and varenicline treatment began 1-week prior to TQD. Smoking status and SH were assessed at baseline (week 1), TQD (week 4), 3 weeks after cessation (week 7), week 12, and at the end of treatment (EOT; week 15).
SH versus GH participants had higher Carbon Monoxide (CO) -verified, 7-day point prevalence abstinence at EOT (69% vs. 54%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40–10.69, P = 0.77). Higher baseline sleep efficiency (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.03–1.96, P = 0.03), predicted higher EOT cessation. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and baseline nicotine dependence.
Improving SH in treatment-seeking smokers prior to cessation warrants further examination as a viable strategy to promote cessation.
Perinatal and later postnatal adversities have been shown to adversely affect socioeconomic trajectories, while enhanced early cognitive abilities improve them. However, little is known about the combined influence of these exposures on social mobility. In this study, we examined if childhood IQ moderated the association between four different types of postnatal adversity (childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, childhood sexual abuse, lifetime psychiatric disorder, and trait neuroticism) and annual earnings at 30–35 years of age in a sample of 88 extremely low birth weight survivors. Our results suggested that higher childhood IQ was associated with greater personal income at age 30–35. Extremely low birth weight survivors who did not face psychological adversities and who had higher childhood IQ reported higher income in adulthood. However, those who faced psychological adversity and had higher childhood IQ generally reported lower income in adulthood. Our findings suggest that cognitive reserve may not protect preterm survivors against the complex web of risk factors affecting their later socioeconomic attainment.
We conducted a program of research to derive and test the reliability of a clinical prediction rule to identify high-risk older adults using paramedics’ observations.
We developed the Paramedics assessing Elders at Risk of Independence Loss (PERIL) checklist of 43 yes or no questions, including the Identifying Seniors at Risk (ISAR) tool items. We trained 1,185 paramedics from three Ontario services to use this checklist, and assessed inter-observer reliability in a convenience sample. The primary outcome, return to the ED, hospitalization, or death within one month was assessed using provincial databases. We derived a prediction rule using multivariable logistic regression.
We enrolled 1,065 subjects, of which 764 (71.7%) had complete data. Inter-observer reliability was good or excellent for 40/43 questions. We derived a four-item rule: 1) “Problems in the home contributing to adverse outcomes?” (OR 1.43); 2) “Called 911 in the last 30 days?” (OR 1.72); 3) male (OR 1.38) and 4) lacks social support (OR 1.4). The PERIL rule performed better than a proxy measure of clinical judgment (AUC 0.62 vs. 0.56, p=0.02) and adherence was better for PERIL than for ISAR.
The four-item PERIL rule has good inter-observer reliability and adherence, and had advantages compared to a proxy measure of clinical judgment. The ISAR is an acceptable alternative, but adherence may be lower. If future research validates the PERIL rule, it could be used by emergency physicians and paramedic services to target preventative interventions for seniors identified as high-risk.
We have used coherent imaging fiber arrays as a platform for preparing chemical sensors and biosensors. Sensors can be made with spatially-discrete sensing sites for multi-analyte determinations. Micrometer sized sensors have been fabricated by etching the cores of an optical imaging fiber to create microwells and loading them with microspheres. These arrays possess both high sensitivity and reproducibility and can be used for making thousands of measurements simultaneously such as for genetic analysis or for the analysis of complex biological fluids. Both optical and optoelectrochemical arrays have been used for multiplexed sensing. In another scheme, the arrays can be used for single molecule detection. In this format, individual molecules, such as enzymes, can be trapped in the microwells by sealing each microwell with a silicone gasket. The enzyme molecules catalyze the formation of a fluorescent product that can be detected readily. The kinetic properties of hundreds to thousands of single enzyme molecules can be monitored simultaneously using this format. By observing the stochastic nature of the single molecule responses, new mechanistic insights into the fundamental nature of the enzymes can be obtained.