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The Galactic TeV
is currently an unidentified source. In an attempt to unveil its origin, we present here the most detailed study of interstellar gas using data from the Mopra Southern Galactic Plane CO Survey, 7- and 12-mm wavelength Mopra surveys and Southern Galactic Plane Survey of HI. Several components of atomic and molecular gas are found to overlap
at various velocities along the line of sight. The CS(1-0) emission clumps confirm the presence of dense gas. Both correlation and anti-correlation between the gas and TeV
-ray emission have been identified in various gas tracers, enabling several origin scenarios for the TeV
-ray emission from
. For a hadronic scenario,
and the progenitor supernova remnant (SNR) of
require cosmic ray (CR) enhancement factors of
times the solar neighbour CR flux value to produce the TeV
-ray emission. Assuming an isotropic diffusion model, CRs from both these SNRs require a slow diffusion coefficient, as found for other TeV SNRs associated with adjacent ISM gas. The morphology of gas located at 3.8 kpc (the dispersion measure distance to
) tends to anti-correlate with features of the TeV emission from
, making the leptonic scenario possible. Both pure hadronic and pure leptonic scenarios thus remain plausible.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often complicated by the after-effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The mixture of brain conditions results in abnormal affective and cognitive functioning, as well as maladaptive behavior. To better understand how brain activity explains cognitive and emotional processes in these conditions, we used an emotional N-back task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study neural responses in US military veterans after deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Additionally, we sought to examine whether hierarchical dimensional models of maladaptive personality could account for the relationship between combat-related brain conditions and fMRI responses under cognitive and affective challenge. FMRI data, measures of PTSD symptomatology (PTSS), blast-induced mTBI (bmTBI) severity, and maladaptive personality (MMPI-2-RF) were gathered from 93 veterans. Brain regions central to emotion regulation were selected for analysis, and consisted of bilateral amygdala, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal (dlPFC), and ventromedial prefrontal/subgenual anterior cingulate (vmPFC-sgACC). Cognitive load increased activity in dlPFC and reduced activity in emotional responding brain regions. However, individuals with greater PTSS showed blunted deactivations in bilateral amygdala and vmPFC-sgACC, and weaker responses in right dlPFC. Additionally, we found that elevated emotional/internalizing dysfunction (EID), specifically low positive emotionality (RC2), accounted for PTSS-related changes in bilateral amygdala under increased cognitive load. Findings suggest that PTSS might result in amygdala and vmPFC-sgACC activity resistant to moderation by cognitive demands, reflecting emotion dysregulation despite a need to marshal cognitive resources. Anhedonia may be an important target for interventions that improve the affective and cognitive functioning of individuals with PTSD.
The low-nitrogen status of highly weathered soils may offer a potential alternative for weed suppression in agricultural systems with N2-fixing crops. In this study, we used sicklepod as a model to evaluate weed response that might occur with managed reductions in nitrogen-soil fertility. A field study was conducted with the parental generation supplied 0, 112, 224, or 448 kg N ha−1. Decreased nitrogen fertility led to reduced shoot biomass, seed number, and total seed mass. Individual seed mass was lower, but seed % nitrogen was not affected. Analysis of seed-mass distribution confirmed that low parental fertility was associated with more small seeds as a proportion of total seeds produced. Additional experiments in hydroponics culture revealed slower growth rates of seedlings produced from small seeds when grown under low-nitrogen conditions. Competitiveness of plants from small (low nitrogen) and large (high nitrogen) seed classes was determined in a replacement-series experiment conducted in sand culture in a controlled environment at two densities and two levels of nitrogen nutrition. Plants produced from smaller seeds were less competitive in low-nitrogen fertility conditions, but plants from small and large seeds competed similarly when grown under high-nitrogen fertility. The results support the hypothesis that comprehensive management strategies to reduce nitrogen availability for weed growth in low-fertility conditions could decrease weed interference by decreasing growth and seed production of parental plants and through maternal effects that lower competitiveness of offspring.
Doveweed is becoming more common in agronomic crops in North Carolina. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effect of temperature and seed burial depth on doveweed germination and emergence. Germination of lightly scarified seed at constant temperature was well described by a Gaussian model, which estimated peak germination at 28 C. Similar maximum percentage of germination was observed for optimal treatments under both constant and alternating temperatures. Among alternating temperatures, a 35/25 C regime gave greatest germination (77%). In spite of similar average daily temperatures, germination was greater with alternating temperature regimes of 40/30 and 40/35 C (65 and 30%, respectively) than constant temperatures of 36 and 38 C (4 and 0%, respectively). No germination was observed at 38 C constant temperature or for alternating temperature regimes of 20/10 and 25/15 C. Light did not enhance germination. Greatest emergence occurred from 0 to 1 cm, with a reduction in emergence as depth increased to 4 cm. No emergence occurred from 6 cm or greater depth. This information on seedbank dynamics may aid in developing tools and strategies for management.
Knowledge of the influence of environmental factors on weed populations is important in developing sustainable turfgrass management practices. Studies were conducted to evaluate the relationship of green and false-green kyllinga population densities with elevation and edaphic factors in turfgrass systems. Studies were conducted on five different golf courses in North Carolina, three affected by green kyllinga, and two affected by false-green kyllinga. According to Spearman correlation coefficients, both green and false-green kyllinga were correlated with increasing soil volumetric water content, whereas correlation of other edaphic variables varied among sites and species. Stepwise logistic regression confirmed the correlation of volumetric water with green kyllinga presence, but model components varied among sites for false-green kyllinga. Increasing green kyllinga populations correlated with increasing soil sodium; however, sodium did not reach a level believed to be detrimental to turfgrass growth. No other variables correlated with green or false-green kyllinga across all sites. We hypothesized that the lack of significant correlations was due to the overall influence of relative elevation on edaphic variables. According to principal components analysis (PCA), relative elevation had a profound impact on the measured edaphic variables at all sites. However, results of PCA at one site differed sharply from other sites. Results from that site demonstrate the potentially strong effects of management practices to alter edaphic trends normally observed with topography.
Bushkiller was evaluated under inter- and intraspecific competition. In
experiment 1, bushkiller, trumpetcreeper, and wild grape were
greenhouse-grown alone and in two or three species mixtures in pots. Of the
three species, bushkiller grew the tallest and had the greatest final
biomass when grown alone. When all three species were grown together,
bushkiller grew over twice the height of trumpetcreeper, over three times
the height of wild grape, and over four times the biomass of either
competing species. Plots of height over time showed that competition did not
affect bushkiller or wild grape growth rate, but trumpetcreeper growth was
reduced when grown with bushkiller. In experiment 2, bushkiller was grown in
cultures of one, two, and three plants per pot to determine intraspecific
competition effects on growth. Final height of bushkiller was not affected
by intraspecific competition; however, bushkiller biomass decreased with
The noxious weed Benghal dayflower has become a severely troublesome agricultural weed in Georgia in the southeastern Unite States, and there are indications that it is moving northward. Benghal dayflower is glyphosate tolerant and possesses a high degree of reproductive elasticity, making it a formidable threat in many crop systems. The purpose of these experiments was to develop the first temperature response profiles for Benghal dayflower, and use them to evaluate whether temperature might limit its northward invasion into North Carolina and adjacent states on the U.S. east coast. Experiments focused on vegetative and early reproductive growth, stages considered crucial for establishment and competitiveness. Exposure to a range of aerial temperatures revealed that Benghal dayflower growth and production of aerial and subterranean reproductive structures were maximized at 30 C, with sharp declines occurring at cooler temperatures. When exposed to differing root temperatures in hydroponics, with a constant aerial temperature, Benghal dayflower growth did not show the same cool temperature sensitivity, but reproductive performance declined when temperatures decreased below about 29 C. The root temperature responses of several other weed species known to thrive in the climate of this geographic area also were determined. Growth of sicklepod, hemp sesbania, and jimsonweed was more sensitive than Benghal dayflower to cool temperatures, whereas the growth response of velvetleaf was similar. Based on the comparison of the Benghal dayflower temperature responses in controlled environments to (1) seasonal air and soil temperatures in the field, and (2) the temperature responses of agronomic weeds known to thrive in the region, it is concluded that cool temperatures will not restrain the northward spread of Benghal dayflower into North Carolina.
Because soil characteristics and weed densities vary within agricultural landscapes, determining which subfield areas are most favorable to weed species may aid in their management. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine whether subfield environments characterized by higher soil organic carbon (SOC), or ridge vs. furrow microsites, affect common sunflower seed germination after winter burial, seedling emergence, or the control afforded by a preemergence herbicide in a ridge-tillage corn production system. Among seeds buried in situ during winter months and germinated in the laboratory, no differences in common sunflower seed germination or mortality were detected between high-SOC (1.8% mean) and low-SOC (1.1% mean) locations. However, seeds buried at 5-cm depth had about 40% laboratory germination compared with about 10% for seeds stratified on the soil surface or under crop residues. In field emergence and survival experiments, the SOC main-plot effect indicated 25% greater seedling survival in high- than in low-SOC locations. In the absence of herbicide, both emergence and survival were ≥ 35% greater in the ridge than in the furrow microsite, and seedling survival was 48% greater in high- vs. low-SOC furrow environments. However, common sunflower seedling survival was similar between herbicide-treated high- and low-SOC ridges. Greenhouse studies indicated a 13 to 24% increase in common sunflower seedling biomass per 1% increase in SOC under three atrazine doses. Altered or additional weed management tactics should be considered for common sunflower in high-SOC environments to offset the greater potential for seedling survival and growth.
Tropical spiderwort (more appropriately called Benghal dayflower) poses a serious threat to crop production in the southern United States. Although tropical spiderwort has been present in the United States for more than seven decades, only recently has it become a pest in agricultural fields. Identified as an isolated weed problem in 1999, tropical spiderwort became the most troublesome weed in Georgia cotton by 2003. Contributing to the significance of tropical spiderwort as a troublesome weed is the lack of control afforded by most commonly used herbicides, especially glyphosate. Vegetative growth and flower production of tropical spiderwort were optimized between 30 and 35 C, but growth was sustained over a range of 20 to 40 C. These temperatures are common throughout much of the United States during summer months. At the very least, it appears that tropical spiderwort may be able to co-occur with cotton throughout the southeastern United States. The environmental limits of tropical spiderwort have not yet been determined. However, the rapid spread through Georgia and naturalization in North Carolina, coupled with its tolerance to current management strategies and aggressive growth habit, make tropical spiderwort a significant threat to agroecosystems in the southern United States.
Dallisgrass response to various MSMA and foramsulfuron herbicide combinations was evaluated from 2004 through 2006 in North Carolina. Dallisgrass control declined with herbicide rates; therefore, only the highest rates (foramsulfuron, 0.15 kg ai/ha; MSMA, 2.5 kg ai/ha) are discussed. Foramsulfuron followed by (fb) foramsulfuron 1 wk after initial treatment (WAIT) provided 60% control of dallisgrass 1 mo after initial treatment (MAIT), but control declined to 40% 3 MAIT. MSMA (2.5 kg ai/ha) applied three times provided 89% dallisgrass control 1 MAIT, but control declined to 71% 3 MAIT. Among 22 MSMA and foramsulfuron sequential application programs, MSMA fb foramsulfuron 2 WAIT fb MSMA 3 WAIT provided the highest control (94%) of dallisgrass 1 MAIT, and control levels remained high (93%) 3 MAIT. This herbicide program provided 85% control 1 yr after initial treatment (YAIT), whereas no other treatment provided greater than 37% control 1 YAIT. Timing of foramsulfuron application following the initial MSMA application affected the control of dallisgrass. Waiting 2 WAIT, rather than 1 WAIT, before applying foramsulfuron increased control of dallisgrass by 20% 1 MAIT and 19% 3 MAIT. However, the increase in control 1 YAIT was only 5% regardless of herbicide rate. The addition of a second application of MSMA following the application of foramsulfuron 2 WAIT of MSMA further increased control by 10% 1 MAIT, 37% 3 MAIT, and 48% 1 YAIT. Results from this study suggest dallisgrass may be controlled with applications of MSMA fb foramsulfuron 2 WAIT fb MSMA 3 WAIT applied during early to midsummer. The use of MSMA was required to achieve dallisgrass control, however, the relatively high level of control achieved 1 YAIT with a program including sequential applications of MSMA and foramsulfuron may help reduce the total amount of arsenical herbicides used to control dallisgrass infestations over time.
Benghal dayflower is an exotic weed species in the United States that is a challenge to manage in agricultural fields. Research was conducted in North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida to evaluate the longevity of buried Benghal dayflower seeds. Seeds were buried in the field for 2 to 60 mo at a depth of 20 cm in mesh bags containing soil native to each area. In North Carolina, decline of Benghal dayflower seed viability was described by a sigmoidal regression model, with seed size having no effect on viability. Seed viability at the initiation of the study was 81%. After burial, viability declined to 51% after 24 mo, 27% after 36 mo, and < 1% after 42 mo. In Georgia, initial seed viability averaged 86% and declined to 63 and 33% at 12 and 24 mo, respectively. Burial of 36 mo or longer reduced seed viability to < 2%. The relationship between Benghal dayflower seed viability and burial time was described by a sigmoidal regression model. In Florida, there was greater variability in Benghal dayflower seed viability than there was at the other locations. Seed viability at the first sampling date after 2 mo of burial was 63%. Although there were fluctuations during the first 24 mo, the regression model indicated approximately 60% of seed remained viable. After 34 mo of burial, seed viability was reduced to 46% and then rapidly fell to 7% at 39 mo, which was consistent with the decrease in seed viability at the other locations. Although there is a physical dormancy imposed by the seed coat of Benghal dayflower, which has been detected in previous studies, it appears that a decline in buried seed viability to minimal levels occurs within 39 to 48 mo in the southeastern United States, suggesting that management programs must prevent seed production for at least four growing seasons to severely reduce the Benghal dayflower soil seedbank.
The effect of mowing regime on lateral spread and rhizome growth of dallisgrass and bahiagrass was determined in field studies conducted in 2003 and 2004 in North Carolina over 5 mo. Treatments were selected to simulate mowing regimes common to intensively managed common bermudagrass turfgrass and include 1.3-, 5.2-, and 7.6-cm heights at frequencies of three, two, and two times per week, respectively. A nonmowed check was included for comparison. Lateral spread of dallisgrass was reduced 38 to 47% regardless of mowing regime when compared with the nonmowed check. Rhizome fresh weight of dallisgrass was reduced 49% in 2003 and 30% in 2004 when mowed at the 7.6-cm regime after 5 mo, whereas the 5.2-cm mowing regime caused a reduction of 31%. Rhizome fresh weight of dallisgrass was most negatively affected by the 1.3-cm regime, which caused reductions of 57% in 2003 and 37% in 2004. Lateral spread of bahiagrass was more strongly affected by mowing height and frequency than dallisgrass, with reductions of 21 to 27%, 40%, and 44 to 62% when mowed at 7.6, 5.2, and 1.3-cm regimes, respectively. Rhizome fresh weight of bahiagrass was reduced 24 to 33%, 55%, and 70 to 73% when mowed at 7.6, 5.2, and 1.3 cm, respectively. Based upon these results, areas mowed at a golf course rough height (≥ 5.2 cm) may be more conducive to bahiagrass spread, whereas dallisgrass may tolerate areas mowed at a fairway height (1.3 cm). Mowing at the shorter heights examined in this study clearly reduced the potential of Paspalum spp. vegetative spread and may help to explain observed distributions of Paspalum spp. infestations in bermudagrass turfgrass.
Demand for organic food products has consistently increased for more than 20 yr. The largest obstacle to organic soybean production in the southeastern United States is weed management. Current organic soybean production relies on mechanical weed control, including multiple postplant rotary hoe uses. Although postplant rotary hoe use is effective at the weed germination stage, its efficacy is severely compromised by delays due to weather. Preplant rotary hoeing is also a practice that has been utilized for weed control but the effectiveness of this practice to reduce the need for multiple postplant rotary hoeing for organic soybean production in the southeastern United States has not been investigated. Preplant rotary hoe treatments included a weekly rotary hoeing 4 wk before planting, 2 wk before planting, and none. Postplant rotary hoe treatments consisted of zero, one, two, three, and four postplant rotary hoe uses. Weed control was increased with preplant rotary hoeing at Plymouth in 2006 and 2007 but this effect disappeared with the first postplant rotary hoeing. Multiple postplant rotary hoe uses decreased soybean plant populations, decreased soybean canopy height, lowered soybean pod position, and decreased soybean yield. Plant mapping revealed that the percentage of total nodes and pods below 30 cm was increased by increased frequency of postplant rotary hoe use.
The high Antarctic plateau provides exceptional conditions for infrared observations on account of the cold, dry and stable atmosphere above the ice surface. This paper describes the scientific goals behind the first program to examine the time-varying universe in the infrared from Antarctica — the Kunlun Infrared Sky Survey (KISS). This will employ a 50cm telescope to monitor the southern skies in the 2.4μmKdark window from China's Kunlun station at Dome A, on the summit of the Antarctic plateau, through the uninterrupted 4-month period of winter darkness. An earlier paper discussed optimisation of the Kdark filter for sensitivity (Li et al. 2016). This paper examines the scientific program for KISS. We calculate the sensitivity of the camera for the extrema of observing conditions that will be encountered. We present the parameters for sample surveys that could then be carried out for a range of cadences and sensitivities. We then discuss several science programs that could be conducted with these capabilities, involving star formation, brown dwarfs and hot Jupiters, exoplanets around M dwarfs, the terminal phases of stellar evolution, fast transients, embedded supernova searches, reverberation mapping of AGN, gamma ray bursts and the detection of the cosmic infrared background.
The dry, cold, tenuous and stable air above the Antarctic Plateau provides superb conditions for the conduct of many classes of astronomical observations. We review in particular the rationale for undertaking near-IR, mm and particle astronomy in Antarctica, disciplines where telescopes are now operating at the US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station.
We describe a versatile infrared camera/spectrograph, IRIS, designed and constructed at the Anglo-Australian Observatory for use on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. A variety of optical configurations can be selected under remote control to provide several direct image scales and a few low-resolution spectroscopic formats. Two cross-dispersed transmission echelles are of novel design, as is the use of a modified Bowen-Burch system to provide a fast f/ratio in the widest-field option. The drive electronics includes a choice of readout schemes for versatility, and continuous display when the array is not taking data, to facilitate field acquisition and focusing.
The linearity of the detector has been studied in detail. Although outwardly good, slight nonlinearities prevent removal of fixed-pattern noise from the data without application of a cubic linearising function.
Specific control and data-reduction software has been written. We describe also a scanning mode developed for spectroscopic imaging.
Our knowledge of the universe comes from recording the photon and particle fluxes incident on the Earth from space. We thus require sensitive measurement across the entire energy spectrum, using large telescopes with efficient instrumentation located on superb sites. Technological advances and engineering constraints are nearing the point where we are recording as many photons arriving at a site as is possible. Major advances in the future will come from improving the quality of the site. The ultimate site is, of course, beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, such as on the Moon, but economic limitations prevent our exploiting this avenue to the degree that the scientific community desires. Here we describe an alternative, which offers many of the advantages of space for a fraction of the cost: the Antarctic Plateau.
We present a millimetre-wave site characterisation for the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) based on nearly 9 yr of data from a seeing monitor operating at this facility. The seeing monitor, which measures the phase fluctuations in the signal from a geosynchronous satellite over a 230-m baseline caused by water vapour fluctuations along their sight lines, provides an almost gapless record since 2005, with high time resolution. We determine the root mean square (rms) of the path length variations as a function of time of day and season. Under the assumption of the ‘frozen screen’ hypothesis, we also determine the Kolmogorov exponent, α, for the turbulence and the phase screen speed. From these, we determine the millimetre-wave seeing at λ = 3.3 mm. Based on the magnitude of the rms path length variations, we estimate the expected fraction of the available observing time when interferometry could be successfully conducted using the ATCA, as a function of observing frequency and antenna baseline, for the time of day and the season. We also estimate the corresponding observing time fractions when using the water vapour radiometers installed on the ATCA in order to correct for the phase fluctuations occurring during the measurement of an astronomical source.