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Dental healthcare personnel (DHCP) are at high risk of exposure to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to identify how DHCP changed their use of personal protective equipment (PPE) as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to pilot an educational video designed to improve knowledge of proper PPE use.
The study comprised 2 sets of semistructured qualitative interviews.
The study was conducted in 8 dental clinics in a Midwestern metropolitan area.
In total, 70 DHCP participated in the first set of interviews; 63 DHCP participated in the second set of interviews.
In September–November 2020 and March–October 2021, we conducted 2 sets of semistructured interviews: (1) PPE use in the dental community during COVID-19, and (2) feedback on the utility of an educational donning and doffing video.
Overall, 86% of DHCP reported having prior training. DHCP increased the use of PPE during COVID-19, specifically N95 respirators and face shields. DHCP reported real-world challenges to applying infection control methods, often resulting in PPE modification and reuse. DHCP reported double masking and sterilization methods to extend N95 respirator use. Additional challenges to PPE included shortages, comfort or discomfort, and compatibility with specialty dental equipment. DHCP found the educational video helpful and relevant to clinical practice. Fewer than half of DHCP reported exposure to a similar video.
DHCP experienced significant challenges related to PPE access and routine use in dental clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic. An educational video improved awareness and uptake of appropriate PPE use among DHCP.
Transitivity is the assumption that if a person prefers A to B and B to C, then that person should prefer A to C. This article explores a paradigm in which Birnbaum, Patton and Lott (1999) thought people might be systematically intransitive. Many undergraduates choose C = ($96, .85; $90, .05; $12, .10) over A = ($96, .9; $14, .05; $12, .05), violating dominance. Perhaps people would detect dominance in simpler choices, such as A versus B = ($96, .9; $12, .10) and B versus C, and yet continue to violate it in the choice between A and C, which would violate transitivity. In this study we apply a true and error model to test intransitive preferences predicted by a partially effective editing mechanism. The results replicated previous findings quite well; however, the true and error model indicated that very few, if any, participants exhibited true intransitive preferences. In addition, violations of stochastic dominance showed a strong and systematic decrease in prevalence over time and violated response independence, thus violating key assumptions of standard random preference models for analysis of transitivity.
In 1976, David Sugden and Brian John developed a classification for Antarctic landscapes of glacial erosion based upon exposed and eroded coastal topography, providing insight into the past glacial dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheets. We extend this classification to cover the continental interior of Antarctica by analysing the hypsometry of the subglacial landscape using a recently released dataset of bed topography (BEDMAP2). We used the existing classification as a basis for first developing a low-resolution description of landscape evolution under the ice sheet before building a more detailed classification of patterns of glacial erosion. Our key finding is that a more widespread distribution of ancient, preserved alpine landscapes may survive beneath the Antarctic ice sheets than has been previously recognized. Furthermore, the findings suggest that landscapes of selective erosion exist further inland than might be expected, and may reflect the presence of thinner, less extensive ice in the past. Much of the selective nature of erosion may be controlled by pre-glacial topography, and especially by the large-scale tectonic structure and fluvial valley network. The hypotheses of landscape evolution presented here can be tested by future surveys of the Antarctic ice sheet bed.
Investigations examining the role of polysialic acid (PSA) on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in synaptic plasticity have yielded inconsistent data. Here, we addressed this issue by determining whether homosynaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and heterosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) induce changes in the distribution of PSA-NCAM in the dentate gyrus (DG) of rats in vivo. In addition, we also examined whether the observed modifications were initiated via the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Immunocytochemical analysis showed an increase in PSA-NCAM positive cells both at 2 and 24 h following high-frequency stimulation of either medial or lateral perforant paths, leading to homosynaptic LTP and heterosynaptic LTD, respectively, in the medial molecular layer of the DG. Analysis of sub-cellular distribution of PSA-NCAM by electron microscopy showed decreased PSA dendritic labelling in LTD rats and a sub-cellular relocation towards the spines in LTP rats. Importantly, these modifications were found to be independent of the activation of NMDA receptors. Our findings suggest that strong activation of the granule cells up-regulates PSA-NCAM synthesis which then incorporates into activated synapses, representing NMDA-independent plastic processes that act synergistically on LTP/LTD mechanisms without participating in their expression.
Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) remains a challenging diagnosis in childhood where there may be no neurological involvement. A 12-month-old male in whom NF2 was suspected because of characteristic ophthalmological and cutaneous lesions is reported. Cranial MRI showed no tumours. A pathogenic mutation was identified on NF2 gene analysis. The child developed hypertension due to renal vascular disease. Although renal vascular disease is a recognized complication of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), it has not been reported in NF2.
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