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The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
We performed a preimplementation assessment of workflows, resources, needs, and antibiotic prescribing practices of trainees and practicing dentists to inform the development of an antibiotic-stewardship clinical decision-support tool (CDST) for dentists.
We used a technology implementation framework to conduct the preimplementation assessment via surveys and focus groups of students, residents, and faculty members. Using Likert scales, the survey assessed baseline knowledge and confidence in dental providers’ antibiotic prescribing. The focus groups gathered information on existing workflows, resources, and needs for end users for our CDST.
Of 355 dental providers recruited to take the survey, 213 (60%) responded: 151 students, 27 residents, and 35 faculty. The average confidence in antibiotic prescribing decisions was 3.2 ± 1.0 on a scale of 1 to 5 (ie, moderate). Dental students were less confident about prescribing antibiotics than residents and faculty (P < .01). However, antibiotic prescribing knowledge was no different between dental students, residents, and faculty. The mean likelihood of prescribing an antibiotic when it was not needed was 2.7 ± 0.6 on a scale of 1 to 5 (unlikely to maybe) and was not meaningfully different across subgroups (P = .10). We had 10 participants across 3 focus groups: 7 students, 2 residents, and 1 faculty member. Four major themes emerged, which indicated that dentists: (1) make antibiotic prescribing decisions based on anecdotal experiences; (2) defer to physicians’ recommendations; (3) have limited access to evidence-based resources; and (4) want CDST for antibiotic prescribing.
Dentists’ confidence in antibiotic prescribing increased by training level, but knowledge did not. Trainees and practicing dentists would benefit from a CDST to improve appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing.
This collection profiles understudied figures in the book and print trades of the seventeenth century. With an equal balance between women and men, it intervenes in the history of the trades, emphasising the broad range of material, cultural, and ideological work these people undertook. It offers a biographical introduction to each figure, placing them in their social, professional, and institutional settings. The collection considers varied print trade roles including that of the printer, publisher, paper-maker, and bookseller, as well as several specific trade networks and numerous textual forms. The biographies draw on extensive new archival research, with details of key sources for further study on each figure. Chronologically organised, this Element offers a primer both on numerous individual figures, and on the tribulations and innovations of the print trade in the century of revolution.
Chapter 8 examines the contemporary value of early cities from several perspectives, including both heritage and scientific values. It reviews the contributions of the book, sets out an agenda for continuing research, and examines three arguments for the relevance of early cities for urban issues today.
Chapter 2 focuses on the key concept of the book, “energized crowding.” After a theoretical and comparative introduction, the chapter outlines the succession of early pre-urban settlements, from Paleolithic hunting camps through Neolithic villages.
Chapter 6 reviews urban institutions and their role as top-down forces shaping life in early cities. The chapter focuses on social class and wealth inequality, the royal palace, and the relationship between people and urban government.
Chapter 4 examines the political contexts of early cities. It analyzes different types of polity, and types of governance (autocratic versus collective), and then reviews the political dimensions of early urban planning.