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There is definitive evidence for effectiveness of thrombectomy for acute stroke with large vessel occlusion (LVO). A clinical tool to identify patients with LVO is therefore required for effective triage and prehospital decision making. We developed the FAST VAN tool, which follows from the Heart and Stroke Foundation FAST stroke screen, with the addition of cortical features of vision, aphasia, and neglect, to differentiate from lacunar syndromes.
Consecutive acute stroke alerts initiated by emergency medical services (EMS) were prospectively analyzed from April 2017 to Jan 2021. FAST VAN signs were recorded by first responders who had received online education about the tool. These findings were compared to the presence or absence of LVO on CT angiography. Analysis was also performed by appropriateness for comprehensive stroke centers (CSC) transfer if no LVO was present. EMS providers were surveyed regarding ease of use in terms of learning the tool and using in real-world practice.
Data from 1080 consecutive acute strokes included 440 patients considered to have VAN signs by EMS. Fifty-four percent of VAN-positive patients showed LVO on CTA. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 86%, 75%, and 77%, respectively. In 204 false-positive cases, 143 (70%) were considered appropriate for evaluation at the CSC. EMS providers reported high satisfaction with learning and using the tool.
The FAST VAN tool for identification of LVO meets desired characteristics of an effective screening tool in ease of use, efficiency, and accuracy. Aphasia remains the most challenging cortical feature to identify accurately.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has required healthcare systems and hospitals to rapidly modify standard practice, including antimicrobial stewardship services. Our study examines the impact of COVID-19 on the antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist.
A survey was distributed nationally to all healthcare improvement company members.
Pharmacist participants were mostly leaders of antimicrobial stewardship programs distributed evenly across the United States and representing urban, suburban, and rural health-system practice sites.
Participants reported relative increases in time spent completing tasks related to medication access and preauthorization (300%; P = .018) and administrative meeting time (34%; P = .067) during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before the pandemic. Time spent rounding, making interventions, performing pharmacokinetic services, and medication reconciliation decreased.
A shift away from clinical activities may negatively affect the utilization of antimicrobials.
Capacity development is increasingly recognized as central to conservation goals. Efforts to develop individual, organizational and societal capacity underpin direct investments in biodiversity conservation and natural resource management, and sustain their impact over time. In the face of urgent needs and increasingly complex contexts for conservation the sector not only needs more capacity development, it needs new approaches to capacity development. The sector is embracing the dynamic relationships between the ecological, political, social and economic dimensions of conservation. Capacity development practitioners should ensure that individuals, organizations and communities are prepared to work effectively in these complex environments of constant change to transform the systems that drive biodiversity loss and unsustainable, unequitable resource use. Here we advocate for a systems view of capacity development. We propose a conceptual framework that aligns capacity development components with all stages of conservation efforts, fosters attention to context, and coordinates with parallel efforts to engage across practitioners and sectors for more systemic impact. Furthermore, we highlight a need for practitioners to target, measure and support vital elements of capacity that have traditionally received less attention, such as values and motivation, leadership and organizational culture, and governance and participation by using approaches from psychology, the social sciences and systems thinking. Drawing from conservation and other sectors, we highlight examples of approaches that can support reflective practice, so capacity development practitioners can better understand the factors that favour or hinder effectiveness of interventions and influence system-wide change.
Two introduced carnivores, the European red fox Vulpes vulpes and domestic cat Felis catus, have had extensive impacts on Australian biodiversity. In this study, we collate information on consumption of Australian birds by the fox, paralleling a recent study reporting on birds consumed by cats. We found records of consumption by foxes on 128 native bird species (18% of the non-vagrant bird fauna and 25% of those species within the fox’s range), a smaller tally than for cats (343 species, including 297 within the fox’s Australian range, a subset of that of the cat). Most (81%) bird species eaten by foxes are also eaten by cats, suggesting that predation impacts are compounded. As with consumption by cats, birds that nest or forage on the ground are most likely to be consumed by foxes. However, there is also some partitioning, with records of consumption by foxes but not cats for 25 bird species, indicating that impacts of the two predators may also be complementary. Bird species ≥3.4 kg were more likely to be eaten by foxes, and those <3.4 kg by cats. Our compilation provides an inventory and describes characteristics of Australian bird species known to be consumed by foxes, but we acknowledge that records of predation do not imply population-level impacts. Nonetheless, there is sufficient information from other studies to demonstrate that fox predation has significant impacts on the population viability of some Australian birds, especially larger birds, and those that nest or forage on the ground.
In March 2018, the US Department of Defense (DOD) added the smallpox vaccination, using ACAM2000, to its routine immunizations, increasing the number of persons receiving the vaccine. The following month, Fort Hood reported a cluster of 5 myopericarditis cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the DOD launched an investigation.
The investigation consisted of a review of medical records, establishment of case definitions, causality assessment, patient interviews, and active surveillance. A 2-sided exact rate ratio test was used to compare myopericarditis incidence rates.
This investigation identified 4 cases of probable myopericarditis and 1 case of suspected myopericarditis. No alternative etiology was identified as a cause. No additional cases were identified. There was no statistically significant difference in incidence rates between the observed cluster (5.23 per 1000 vaccinated individuals, 95% CI: 1.7–12.2) and the ACAM2000 clinical trial outcomes for symptomatic persons, which was 2.29 per 1000 vaccinated individuals (95% CI: 0.3–8.3).
Vaccination with ACAM2000 is the presumptive cause of this cluster. Caution should be exercised before considering vaccination campaigns for smallpox given the clinical morbidity and costs incurred by a case of myopericarditis. Risk of myopericarditis should be carefully weighed with risk of exposure to smallpox.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Leveraging partnerships with faith-based institutions and community centers in at-risk NYC neighborhoods, the H2H Program breaks down barriers to engaging with the medical establishment and addresses the increasing burden of diabetes and CVD risk factors in the most vulnerable individuals. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Screening for modifiable risk factors is critical for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Low-income, urban communities often encounter barriers to care. Community-academic outreach partnerships are vital in addressing such disparities and promoting health equity and culturally targeted interventions among high-risk populations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In 2010, the Weill Cornell Clinical and Translational Science Center along with Weill Cornell Medicine (WCM) and Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing (HBSON) launched Heart to Heart (H2H), a community outreach program partnering with faith-based centers to offer free health screenings and education to some of New York City’s (NYC) most vulnerable communities. Participants work with undergraduate, nursing, medical and dietician students to complete a demographics and health questionnaire followed by vital signs and point-of-care blood testing. Participants then receive personalized health education, nutrition and lifestyle counseling by student volunteers, precepted by WCM Primary Care and HBSON faculty. Participants are provided information on local free or low-cost clinics as necessary for follow-up. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To date H2H held 125 events and 5,952 screenings. Mean age of the participants was 54.3 (SD 39.6) and 3,682 (63.1%) were female. 74.2% identified as non-white. 42.1% were uninsured. 32.3% reported annual income of less than $20k. 18.3% of participants reported not having seen a doctor in the past year. 40.7% reported preexisting hypertension, of which 74.5% were on medication and 78% with sub-optimal control. 15.7% had been previously diagnosed with diabetes, of which 75.8% were on medication and 41.4% with sub-optimal control (HbA1c <7). 37.7% had been diagnosed with dyslipidemia previously, of which 47.4% were on medication and 62.1% with sub-optimal control. Screenings revealed, 56.9% had undiagnosed hypertensive blood pressures, 4.7% had an elevated HbA1c >6.5, and 49.2% had dyslipidemia. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: H2H screening revealed significant cardiovascular health disparities, many of which were poorly controlled or newly discovered. Cross-institutional academic partnerships can empower communities with knowledge of their health status and help facilitate access to medical care to further address health risk factors.
Years of sport participation (YoP) is conventionally used to estimate cumulative repetitive head impacts (RHI) experienced by contact sport athletes. The relationship of this measure to other estimates of head impact exposure and the potential associations of these measures with neurobehavioral functioning are unknown. We investigated the association between YoP and the Head Impact Exposure Estimate (HIEE), and whether associations between the two estimates of exposure and neurobehavioral functioning varied.
Former American football players (N = 58; age = 37.9 ± 1.5 years) completed in-person evaluations approximately 15 years following sport discontinuation. Assessments consisted of neuropsychological assessment and structured interviews of head impact history (i.e., HIEE). General linear models were fit to test the association between YoP and the HIEE, and their associations with neurobehavioral outcomes.
YoP was weakly correlated with the HIEE, p = .005, R2 = .13. Higher YoP was associated with worse performance on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, p = .004, R2 = .14, and Trail Making Test-B, p = .001, R2 = .18. The HIEE was associated with worse performance on the Delayed Recall trial of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, p = .020, R2 = .09, self-reported cognitive difficulties (Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function), p = .011, R2 = .10, psychological distress (Brief Symptom Inventory-18), p = .018, R2 = .10, and behavioral regulation (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function for Adults), p = .017, R2 = .10.
YoP was marginally associated with the HIEE, a comprehensive estimate of head impacts sustained over a career. Associations between each exposure estimate and neurobehavioral functioning outcomes differed. Findings have meaningful implications for efforts to accurately quantify the risk of adverse long-term neurobehavioral outcomes potentially associated with RHI.
Behavioral economics is a subfield of behavioral psychology that integrates microeconomic principles with the experimental analysis of behavior. Decades of behavioral economic work have identified two concepts robustly related to issues of risky health decisions and behavioral addictions: discounting and operant demand. Discounting is the phenomenon wherein uncertain or delayed outcomes lose value, often resulting in myopic decisions (e.g., choosing short-term benefits of heroin use over long-term healthy behaviors). Operant demand describes organisms’ persistent efforts to maintain access to reward. Collectively, discounting and demand comprise the reinforcement pathology model of unhealthy behavior, wherein counterproductive discounting and excessive demand coalesce to render risky and unhealthy reward preferences. This reinforcement pathology model may help explain behavioral addictions, issues of dependence, and other behavioral issues. This chapter describes the history of discounting and demand, common behavioral economic tasks to derive indices of discounting and demand, the hypothetical purchasing task, and the range of applications to addictions, novel addictions, and nonaddictive behaviors in the literature, to date.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
We describe 14 yr of public data from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA), an ongoing project that is producing precise measurements of pulse times of arrival from 26 millisecond pulsars using the 64-m Parkes radio telescope with a cadence of approximately 3 weeks in three observing bands. A comprehensive description of the pulsar observing systems employed at the telescope since 2004 is provided, including the calibration methodology and an analysis of the stability of system components. We attempt to provide full accounting of the reduction from the raw measured Stokes parameters to pulse times of arrival to aid third parties in reproducing our results. This conversion is encapsulated in a processing pipeline designed to track provenance. Our data products include pulse times of arrival for each of the pulsars along with an initial set of pulsar parameters and noise models. The calibrated pulse profiles and timing template profiles are also available. These data represent almost 21 000 h of recorded data spanning over 14 yr. After accounting for processes that induce time-correlated noise, 22 of the pulsars have weighted root-mean-square timing residuals of
in at least one radio band. The data should allow end users to quickly undertake their own gravitational wave analyses, for example, without having to understand the intricacies of pulsar polarisation calibration or attain a mastery of radio frequency interference mitigation as is required when analysing raw data files.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The purpose of the present study was: (1) to develop a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-derived body volume (BV) equation with the GE-Lunar prodigy while utilising underwater weighing (UWW) as a criterion and (2) to cross-validate the novel DXA-derived BV equation (4C-DXANickerson), Wilson DXA-derived BV equation (4C-DXAWilson) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP)-derived BV (4C-ADP) in Hispanic adults. A total of 191 Hispanic adults (18–45 years) participated in the present study. The development sample consisted of 120 females and males (50 % females), whereas the cross-validation sample comprised of forty-one females and thirty males (n 71). Criterion body fat percentage (BF %) and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined using a four-compartment (4C) model with UWW as a criterion for BV (4C-UWW). 4C-DXANickerson, 4C-DXAWilson and 4C-ADP were compared against 4C-UWW in the cross-validation sample. 4C-DXANickerson, 4C-DXAWilson and 4C-ADP all produced similar validity statistics when compared with 4C-UWW in Hispanic males (all P > 0·05). 4C-DXANickerson also yielded similar BF % and FFM values as 4C-UWW when evaluating the mean differences (constant error (CE)) in Hispanic females (CE = –0·79 % and 0·38 kg; P = 0·060 and 0·174, respectively). However, 4C-DXAWilson produced significantly different BF % and FFM values (CE = 3·22 % and –2·20 kg, respectively; both P < 0·001). Additionally, 4C-DXAWilson yielded significant proportional bias when estimating BF % (P < 0·001), whereas 4C-ADP produced significant proportional bias for BF % and FFM (both P < 0·05) when evaluated in Hispanic females. The present study findings demonstrate that 4C-DXANickerson is a valid measure of BV in Hispanics and is recommended for use in clinics, where DXA is the main body composition assessment technique.
To integrate electronic clinical decision support tools into clinical practice and to evaluate the impact on indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) use and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs).
Design, Setting, and Participants
This 4-phase observational study included all inpatients at a multicampus, academic medical center between 2011 and 2015.
Phase 1 comprised best practices training and standardization of electronic documentation. Phase 2 comprised real-time electronic tracking of IUC duration. In phase 3, a triggered alert reminded clinicians of IUC duration. In phase 4, a new IUC order (1) introduced automated order expiration and (2) required consideration of alternatives and selection of an appropriate indication.
Overall, 2,121 CAUTIs, 179,070 new catheters, 643,055 catheter days, and 2,186 reinsertions occurred in 3·85 million hospitalized patient days during the study period. The CAUTI rate per 10,000 patient days decreased incrementally in each phase from 9·06 in phase 1 to 1·65 in phase 4 (relative risk [RR], 0·182; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·153–0·216; P<·001). New catheters per 1,000 patient days declined from 53·4 in phase 1 to 39·5 in phase 4 (RR, 0·740; 95% CI, 0·730; P<·001), and catheter days per 1,000 patient days decreased from 194·5 in phase 1 to 140·7 in phase 4 (RR, 0·723; 95% CI, 0·719–0·728; P<·001). The reinsertion rate declined from 3·66% in phase 1 to 3·25% in phase 4 (RR, 0·894; 95% CI, 0·834–0·959; P=·0017).
The phased introduction of decision support tools was associated with progressive declines in new catheters, total catheter days, and CAUTIs. Clinical decision support tools offer a viable and scalable intervention to target hospital-wide IUC use and hold promise for other quality improvement initiatives.
School students are increasingly using apps for health-related purposes, either on their own or when recommended by psychologists or counsellors, as apps offer a way to assist students to change their behaviour. However, there is a growing need for psychologists and counsellors to be able to evaluate the quality and usefulness of such apps to effect behaviour change. This study was therefore undertaken to identify methods by which school psychologists and counsellors could evaluate health-related apps for clinical use or research purposes. After examining 15 studies of apps that met the inclusion criteria, it was clear that researchers used a number of taxonomies to evaluate the apps. There were seven taxonomies identified, of which five were generalisable to all health conditions, with the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy being the most comprehensive, containing 13 key behaviour strategies. Despite the utility of the taxonomies to identify the amount of behaviour change content within the apps, it was difficult to determine how the behaviour change strategies were measured, thus reducing the ability to predict app effectiveness. Approaches to improving methods by which apps can be developed and evaluated are proposed.
Governing Medical Knowledge Commons makes three claims: first, evidence matters to innovation policymaking; second, evidence shows that self-governing knowledge commons support effective innovation without prioritizing traditional intellectual property rights; and third, knowledge commons can succeed in the critical fields of medicine and health. The editors' knowledge commons framework adapts Elinor Ostrom's groundbreaking research on natural resource commons to the distinctive attributes of knowledge and information, providing a systematic means for accumulating evidence about how knowledge commons succeed. The editors' previous volume, Governing Knowledge Commons, demonstrated the framework's power through case studies in a diverse range of areas. Governing Medical Knowledge Commons provides fifteen new case studies of knowledge commons in which researchers, medical professionals, and patients generate, improve, and share innovations, offering readers a practical introduction to the knowledge commons framework and a synthesis of conclusions and lessons. The book is also available as Open Access.