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The objective of this paper is to review the global effort to eliminate iodine deficiency and its impact on public health. Iodine is an essential component of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Iodine deficiency has multiple adverse effects in humans due to inadequate thyroid hormone production that are termed the iodine deficiency disorders. The major adverse effect is impaired cognition in children. The WHO's first estimate of the global prevalence of goitre in 1960 suggested that 20–60 % of the world's population was affected, with most of the burden in low- and middle-income countries. Iodine deficiency was identified as a key global risk factor for impaired child development where the need for intervention was urgent. This spurred a worldwide effort to eliminate iodine deficiency led by a coalition of international organisations working closely with national governments and the salt industry. In most countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is carefully monitored iodisation of salt. The reach of current iodised salt programmes is remarkable: in 2018, 88 % of the global population used iodised salt. The number of countries with adequate iodine intake has nearly doubled over the past 20 years from 67 in 2003 to 118 in 2020. The resulting improvement in cognitive development and future earnings suggests a potential global economic benefit of nearly $33 billion. Iodine programmes are appealing for national governments because the health and economic consequences are high and can be easily averted by salt iodisation, a low-cost and sustainable intervention.
Although hepcidin synthesis is stimulated by inflammation and inhibited by Fe deficiency, the strength of their opposing effects on serum hepcidin (SHep) in humans remains unclear. It was recently shown that an inflammatory stimulus in anaemic women did not increase SHep or decrease Fe absorption. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on Fe absorption may not be effective during inflammation because of increased SHep. Our study aim was to test whether reducing inflammation in Fe-depleted overweight (OW) women with low-grade inflammation would lower SHep and improve Fe absorption with and without ascorbic acid, compared with normal-weight (NW) women without inflammation. Before and after 14 d of anti-inflammatory treatment (3 × 600 mg ibuprofen daily) in OW and NW women (n 36; 19–46 years of age), we measured SHep and fractional Fe absorption (FIA) (erythrocyte Fe incorporation) from 57Fe- and 58Fe-labelled test meals with and without ascorbic acid. There were significant group effects on IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and SHep (for all, P < 0·05). There was a significant treatment effect on SHep (P < 0·05): in OW women, treatment decreased IL-6 by approximately 30 % and SHep by approximately 45 %. However, there were no significant treatment or group effects on FIA. Body Fe stores (BIS) were a significant positive predictor of SHep before and after treatment (P < 0·001), but IL-6 was not. Reducing chronic inflammation in OW women halved SHep but did not affect Fe absorption with or without ascorbic acid, and the main predictor of Fe absorption was BIS.
Overweight/obesity (owob) causes low-grad systemic inflammation and thereby an up-regulation of hepcidin and a reduction in fractional iron absorption (FIA) even with low iron stores. Pregnancy increases iron needs because of the expansion of maternal blood volume and fetal needs. It is unclear to what extent owob pregnancy influences FIA, iron supply of the fetus and risk of iron deficiency. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal owob on iron absorption during pregnancy and on the iron transfer to the fetus. Secondary objectives were to investigate the development of hepcidin, plasma ferritin and inflammatory markers over the course of pregnancy dependent on weight status. In this multicenter case-control study we included 44 normal weight (nw) and 36 owob women around pregnancy week (PW) 12. We administered 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4 to women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. We measured FIA determining erythrocyte incorporation of iron stable isotopes 14 days after administration. From PW 12 until PW 36 iron-, inflammation and hepcidin were monitored. Iron transfer to the fetus was determined as iron stable isotope concentration in cord blood. Sample analysis is currently ongoing, all results will be available in October. Subject characteristics in PW 12 for the nw (n = 26) and owob (n = 10) were: mean BMI: 21.4 ± 2.2 and 36.7 ± 6.8 kg/m2, mean hemoglobin: 12.4 ± 1.2 and 12.4 ± 0.9 g/dL and median plasma ferritin: 41.3 (29.6–83.6) and 61.6 (24.3–119.0) μg/L. Preliminary results indicate FIA increased by 2.4 fold in the nw and by 1.3 fold in the owob women between the 2nd and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Iron stores decreased in both groups over the course of pregnancy. Hepcidin was still significantly higher in the owob women in the 3rd trimester. Inflammation tended to be higher in owob women throughout pregnancy. Iron isotopes were highly detectable in cord blood. The 58Fe:57Fe-ratio determined in cord blood corresponded to the 58Fe:57Fe-ratio determined in the mother in the 3rd trimester. Thus, in owob women, the increase in FIA throughout pregnancy to support iron needs of mother and fetus is blunted compared to nw women. This is consistent with elevated hepcidin in the 3rd trimester and higher inflammation throughout pregnancy. Thus, even though iron demands are strongly increased, owob may prohibit an adequate iron supply to the expecting mother and the fetus due to persistent subclinical inflammation.
The contribution of milk and dairy products to daily iodine intake is high but variable in many industrialised countries. Factors that affect iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products are only poorly understood. Our aim was to: (1) assess the effect of feed iodine concentration on milk iodine by supplementing five groups of five cows each with one of five dosages from 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM; (2) quantify iodine losses during manufacturing of cheese and yogurt from milk with varying iodine concentrations and assess the effect of cellar-ripening; and (3) systematically measure iodine partitioning during heat treatment and skimming of milk. Milk iodine reached a near-steady state after 3 weeks of feeding. Median milk iodine (17–302 μg/l for 0–2 mg iodine/kg DM) increased linearly with feed iodine (R2 0·96; P < 0·001). At curd separation, 75–84 % of iodine was lost in whey. Dairy iodine increased linearly with milk iodine (semi-hard cheese: R2 0·95; P < 0·001; fresh cheese and yogurt: R2 1·00; P < 0·001), and cellar-ripening had no effect. Heat treatment had no significant effect, whereas skimming increased (P < 0·001) milk iodine concentration by only 1–2 μg/l. Mean daily intake of dairy products by Swiss adults is estimated at 213 g, which would contribute 13–52 % of the adults’ RDA for iodine if cow feed is supplemented with 0·5–2 mg iodine/kg DM. Thus, modulation of feed iodine levels can help achieve desirable iodine concentrations in milk and dairy products, and thereby optimise their contribution to human iodine nutrition to avoid both deficiency and excess.
To estimate the cost-effectiveness of price subsidies on fortified packaged complementary foods (FPCF) in reducing iodine deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in Pakistani children.
The study proceeded in three steps: (i) we determined the current lifetime costs of the three micronutrient deficiencies with a health economic model; (ii) we assessed the price sensitivity of demand for FPCF with a market survey in two Pakistani districts; (iii) we combined the findings of the first two steps with the results of a systematic review on the effectiveness of FPCF in reducing micronutrient deficiencies. The cost-effectiveness was estimated by comparing the net social cost of price subsidies with the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted.
Districts of Faisalabad and Hyderabad in Pakistan.
Households with 6–23-month-old children stratified by socio-economic strata.
The lifetime social costs of iodine deficiency, iron-deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency in 6–23-month-old children amounted to production losses of $US 209 million and 175 000 DALY. Poor households incurred the highest costs, yet even wealthier households suffered substantial losses. Wealthier households were more likely to buy FPCF. The net cost per DALY of the interventions ranged from a return per DALY averted of $US 783 to $US 65. Interventions targeted at poorer households were most cost-effective.
Price subsidies on FPCF might be a cost-effective way to reduce the societal costs of micronutrient deficiencies in 6–23-month-old children in Pakistan. Interventions targeting poorer households are especially cost-effective.
Zn deficiency and diarrhoea are prevalent and may coexist in children living in low-resource settings. Recently, a novel approach for delivering Zn via microbiologically treated, Zn-fortified water was shown to be effective in improving Zn status in West African schoolchildren. We assessed the effectiveness of Zn-fortified, microbiologically purified water delivered as a household intervention on Zn intake, status and morbidity in children aged 2–6 years from rural western Kenya.
Randomised controlled trial. Intervention included households assigned to water treatment device with (ZFW) or without (FW) Zn delivery capability
Rural households in Kisumu, western Kenya.
Children aged 2–6 years.
The ZFW group had higher dietary Zn intake compared with the FW group. ZFW contributed 36 and 31 % of daily requirements for absorbable Zn in children aged 2–3 and 4–6 years, respectively, in the ZFW group. Consumption of Zn-fortified water resulted in lower prevalence of reported illness (risk ratio; 95 % CI) in the ZFW group compared with the FW group: for cold with runny nose (0·91; 0·83, 0·99; P=0·034) and abdominal pain (0·70; 0·56, 0·89; P=0·003) in the intention-to-treat analysis and for diarrhoea (0·72; 0·53, 0·96; P=0·025) in the per-protocol analysis. We did not detect an effect of treatment on plasma Zn concentration.
Daily consumption of Zn-fortified, microbiologically treated water results in increased intake of absorbable dietary Zn and may help in preventing childhood infections in pre-school children in rural Africa.
Milk and dairy products are important iodine sources and contribute about 30–40 % of total iodine in the Swiss diet. Information about variation in milk iodine concentration (MIC) in Switzerland is limited. We examined MIC and its potential determinants in milk from organic and conventional farms. We collected bulk milk samples at 3-month intervals over 1 year from thirty-two farms throughout Switzerland and Aosta valley, North-West Italy. We sampled all feed components including tap water, collected information on farm characteristics, feeding and teat disinfection practices by questionnaire and estimated the cows’ winter and summer iodine intake. Iodine in milk and feed components was measured using inductively coupled plasma MS. The overall median MIC was 87 (range 5–371) µg/l. In multivariate analysis, predictors of MIC were as follows: (1) farm type: median MIC from organic and conventional farms was 55 and 93 µg/l (P=0·022); (2) season: 53, 97 and 101 µg/l in September, December and March (P<0·002); and (3) teat dipping: 97 µg/l with v. 56 µg/l without (P=0·028). In conclusion, MIC varied widely between farms because of diverse farming practices that result in large differences in dairy cow exposure to iodine via ingestion or skin application. Standardisation of MIC is potentially achievable by controlling these iodine exposures. In order for milk to be a stable iodine source all year round, dietary iodine could be added at a set level to one feed component whose intake is regular and controllable, such as the mineral supplement, and by limiting the use of iodine-containing teat disinfectants.
Zn status may affect fatty acid (FA) metabolism because it acts as a cofactor in FA desaturase and elongase enzymes. Zn supplementation affects the FA desaturases of Zn-deficient rats, but whether this occurs in humans is unclear. We evaluated the associations between baseline plasma Zn (PZn) concentration and plasma total phospholipid FA composition, as well as the effect of daily consumption of Zn-fortified water on FA status in Beninese children. A 20-week, double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted in 186 school age children. The children were randomly assigned to receive a daily portion of Zn-fortified, filtered water delivering on average 2·8 mg Zn/d or non-fortified filtered water. Plasma total phospholipid FA composition was determined using capillary GLC and PZn concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry. At baseline, PZn correlated positively with dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA, r 0·182; P=0·024) and the DGLA:linoleic acid (LA) ratio (r 0·293; P<0·000), and negatively with LA (r −0·211; P=0·009) and the arachidonic acid:DGLA ratio (r −0·170; P=0·036). With the intervention, Zn fortification increased nervonic acid (B: 0·109; 95 % CI 0·001, 0·218) in all children (n 186) and more so in children who were Zn-deficient (n 60) at baseline (B: 0·230; 95 % CI 0·023, 0·488). In conclusion, in this study, Zn-fortified filtered water prevented the reduction of nervonic acid composition in the plasma total phospholipids of children, and this effect was stronger in Zn-deficient children. Thus, Zn status may play an important role in FA desaturation and/or elongation.
Fe fortification of wheat flour was proposed in Haiti to combat Fe deficiency, but Fe bioavailability from fortificants has never been investigated in Haitian women or preschool children, two key target groups. We aimed to investigate the bioavailability of ferrous fumarate (FeFum), NaFeEDTA and their combination from fortified wheat flour. We recruited twenty-two healthy mother–child pairs in Port au Prince, Haiti, for an Fe-absorption study. We administered stable Fe isotopes as FeFum or NaFeEDTA individually in low-extraction wheat flour bread rolls consumed by all participants in a randomised, cross-over design. In a final, identical meal, consumed only by the women, FeFum+NaFeEDTA was administered. We measured Fe absorption by using erythrocyte incorporation of stable isotopes 14 d after consumption of each meal, and determined Fe status, inflammatory markers and Helicobacter pylori infection. Fe absorption (geometric mean was 9·24 (95 % CI 6·35, 13·44) and 9·26 (95 % CI 7·00, 12·31) from FeFum and 13·06 (95 % CI 9·23, 19·10) and 12·99 (95 % CI 9·18, 18·39) from NaFeEDTA in mothers and children, respectively (P<0·05 between compounds). Fe absorption from FeFum+NaFeEDTA was 11·09 (95 % CI 7·45, 17·34) and did not differ from the other two meals. H. pylori infection did not influence Fe absorption in children. In conclusion, in Haitian women and children, Fe absorption from NaFeEDTA was 40 % higher than from FeFum, and the combination FeFum+NaFeEDTA did not significantly increase Fe absorption compared with FeFum alone. In the context of Haiti, where the high costs of NaFeEDTA may not be affordable, the use of FeFum at 60 mg Fe/kg flour may be a preferable, cost-effective fortification strategy.
To assess iodine status among pregnant women in rural Zinder, Niger and to compare their status with the iodine status of school-aged children from the same households.
Seventy-three villages in the catchment area of sixteen health centres were randomly selected to participate in the cross-sectional survey.
Salt iodization is mandatory in Niger, requiring 20–60 ppm iodine at the retail level.
A spot urine sample was collected from randomly selected pregnant women (n 662) and one school-aged child from the same household (n 373). Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was assessed as an indicator of iodine status in both groups. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected from venous blood samples of pregnant women and thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid-stimulating hormone and total thyroxine were measured. Iodine content of household salt samples (n 108) was assessed by titration.
Median iodine content of salt samples was 5·5 ppm (range 0–41 ppm), 98 % had an iodine content <20 ppm. Median (interquartile range) UIC of pregnant women and school-aged children was 69·0 (38·1–114·3) and 100·9 (61·2–163·2) µg/l, respectively. Although nearly all pregnant women were euthyroid, their median (interquartile range) DBS-Tg was 34·6 (23·9–49·7) µg/l and 38·4 % had DBS-Tg>40 µg/l.
In this region of Niger, most salt is inadequately iodized. UIC in pregnant women indicated iodine deficiency, whereas UIC of school-aged children indicated marginally adequate iodine status. Thus, estimating population iodine status based solely on monitoring of UIC among school-aged children may underestimate the risk of iodine deficiency in pregnant women.
Bouillon cubes are widely consumed by poor households in sub-Saharan Africa. Because their main ingredient is salt, bouillon cubes could be a good source of iodine if iodized salt is used in their production and if their consumption by target groups is high. Our objective was to measure the iodine content of bouillon cubes, estimate their daily intake in school-aged children and evaluate their potential contribution to iodine intakes.
In a cross-sectional study, we measured urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and estimated total daily iodine intakes. We administered a questionnaire on usage of bouillon cubes. We measured the iodine content of bouillon cubes, household salt, drinking-water and milk products.
Primary schools in northern Ghana.
Schoolchildren aged 6–13 years.
Among school-aged children (n 250), median (interquartile range) UIC and estimated iodine intake were 242 (163–365) µg/l and 129 (85–221) µg/d, indicating adequate iodine status. Median household salt iodine concentration (n 100) was only 2·0 (0·83–7·4) µg/g; 72 % of samples contained <5 µg iodine/g. Iodine concentrations in drinking-water and milk-based drinks were negligible. Median iodine content of bouillon cubes was 31·8 (26·8–43·7) µg/g, with large differences between brands. Estimated median per capita consumption of bouillon cubes was 2·4 (1·5–3·3) g/d and median iodine intake from bouillon cubes was 88 (51–110) µg/d.
Despite low household coverage with iodized salt, iodine nutrition in school-aged children is adequate and an estimated two-thirds of their dietary iodine is obtained from bouillon cubes.
Fe fortification of centrally manufactured and frequently consumed condiments such as bouillon cubes could help prevent Fe deficiency in developing countries. However, Fe compounds that do not cause sensory changes in the fortified product, such as ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), exhibit low absorption in humans. Tetra sodium pyrophosphate (NaPP) can form soluble complexes with Fe, which could increase Fe bioavailability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate Fe bioavailability from bouillon cubes fortified with either FePP only, FePP+NaPP, ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) only, or FeSO4+NaPP. We first conducted in vitro studies using a protocol of simulated digestion to assess the dialysable and ionic Fe, and the cellular ferritin response in a Caco-2 cell model. Second, Fe absorption from bouillon prepared from intrinsically labelled cubes (2·5 mg stable Fe isotopes/cube) was assessed in twenty-four Fe-deficient women, by measuring Fe incorporation into erythrocytes 2 weeks after consumption. Fe bioavailability in humans increased by 46 % (P<0·005) when comparing bouillons fortified with FePP only (4·4 %) and bouillons fortified with FePP+NaPP (6·4 %). Fe absorption from bouillons fortified with FeSO4 only and with FeSO4+NaPP was 33·8 and 27·8 %, respectively (NS). The outcome from the human study is in agreement with the dialysable Fe from the in vitro experiments. Our findings suggest that the addition of NaPP could be a promising strategy to increase Fe absorption from FePP-fortified bouillon cubes, and if confirmed by further research, for other fortified foods with complex food matrices as well.
Both Fe deficiency and poor n-3 fatty acid status have been associated with behavioural changes in children. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Fe and DHA+EPA supplementation, alone or in combination, on physical activity during school days and on teacher-rated behaviour in healthy Fe-deficient school children. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, children (n 98, 6–11 years) were randomly assigned to receive (1) Fe (50 mg) plus DHA (420 mg)+EPA (80 mg), (2) Fe plus placebo, (3) placebo plus DHA+EPA or (4) placebo plus placebo as oral supplements (4 d/week) for 8·5 months. Physical activity was measured during four school days at baseline and endpoint using accelerometers, and data were stratified into morning class time (08.00–10.29 hours), break time (10.30–11.00 hours) and after-break class time (11.01–12.00 hours) for analysis. Classroom behaviour was assessed at endpoint using Conners’ Teacher Rating Scales. DHA+EPA supplementation decreased physical activity counts during morning class time, increased sedentary physical activity, and decreased light- and moderate-intensity physical activities. Consistently, DHA+EPA supplementation increased sedentary physical activity and decreased light-intensity physical activity during after-break class time. Even though there were no treatment effects found on teacher-rated behaviour, lower physical activity during morning class time was associated with lower levels of teacher-rated hyperactivity and oppositional behaviour at endpoint. Despite a positive association between Fe status and physical activity during break time at baseline, Fe supplementation did not affect physical activity during break time and class time. Our findings suggest that DHA+EPA supplementation may decrease physical activity levels during class time, and further indicate that accelerometry might be a useful tool to assess classroom behaviour in healthy children.
Fe supplementation is a common strategy to correct Fe-deficiency anaemia in children; however, it may modify the gut microbiota and increase the risk for enteropathogenic infection. In the present study, we studied the impact of Fe supplementation on the abundance of dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA concentration and gut inflammation in children living in rural South Africa. In a randomised, placebo-controlled intervention trial of 38 weeks, 6- to 11-year-old children with Fe deficiency received orally either tablets containing 50 mg Fe as FeSO4 (n 22) for 4 d/week or identical placebo (n 27). In addition, Fe-sufficient children (n 24) were included as a non-treated reference group. Faecal samples were analysed at baseline and at 2, 12 and 38 weeks to determine the effects of Fe supplementation on ten bacterial groups in the gut (quantitative PCR), faecal SCFA concentration (HPLC) and gut inflammation (faecal calprotectin concentration). At baseline, concentrations of bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA and faecal calprotectin did not differ between Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient children. Fe supplementation significantly improved Fe status in Fe-deficient children and did not significantly increase faecal calprotectin concentration. Moreover, no significant effect of Fe treatment or time × treatment interaction on the concentrations of bacterial groups in the gut or faecal SCFA was observed compared with the placebo treatment. Also, there were no significant differences observed in the concentrations of any of the bacterial target groups or faecal SCFA at 2, 12 or 38 weeks between the three groups of children when correcting for baseline values. The present study suggests that in African children with a low enteropathogen burden, Fe status and dietary Fe supplementation did not significantly affect the dominant bacterial groups in the gut, faecal SCFA concentration or gut inflammation.
To compare the iodine status of pregnant women and their children who were sharing all meals in Bangalore, India.
A cross-sectional study evaluating demographic characteristics, household salt iodine concentration and salt usage patterns, urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) in women and children, and maternal thyroid volume (ultrasound).
Antenatal clinic of an urban tertiary-care hospital, which serves a low-income population.
Healthy pregnant women in all trimesters, aged 18–35 years, who had healthy children aged 3–15 years.
Median (range) iodine concentrations of household powdered and crystal salt were 55·9 (17·2–65·9) ppm and 18·9 (2·2–68·2) ppm, respectively. The contribution of iodine-containing supplements and multi-micronutrient powders to iodine intake in the families was negligible. Adequately iodized salt, together with small amounts of iodine in local foods, were providing adequate iodine during pregnancy: (i) the overall median (range) UIC in women was 172 (5–1024) µg/l; (ii) the median UIC was >150 µg/l in all trimesters; and (iii) thyroid size was not significantly different across trimesters. At the same time, the median (range) UIC in children was 220 (10–782) µg/l, indicating more-than-adequate iodine intake at this age. Median UIC was significantly higher in children than in their mothers (P=0·008).
In this selected urban population of southern India, the iodized salt programme provides adequate iodine to women throughout pregnancy, at the expense of higher iodine intake in their children. Thus we suggest that the current cut-off for median UIC in children indicating more-than-adequate intake, recommended by the WHO/UNICEF/International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders may, need to be reconsidered.
The global prevalence of Fe deficiency is high and a common corrective strategy is oral Fe supplementation, which may affect the commensal gut microbiota and gastrointestinal health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different dietary Fe concentrations on the gut microbiota and gut health of rats inoculated with human faecal microbiota. Rats (8 weeks old, n 40) were divided into five (n 8 each) groups and fed diets differing only in Fe concentration during an Fe-depletion period (12 weeks) and an Fe-repletion period (4 weeks) as follows: (1) Fe-sufficient diet throughout the study period; (2) Fe-sufficient diet followed by 70 mg Fe/kg diet; (3) Fe-depleted diet throughout the study period; (4) Fe-depleted diet followed by 35 mg Fe/kg diet; (5) Fe-depleted diet followed by 70 mg Fe/kg diet. Faecal and caecal samples were analysed for gut microbiota composition (quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing) and bacterial metabolites (HPLC), and intestinal tissue samples were investigated histologically. Fe depletion did not significantly alter dominant populations of the gut microbiota and did not induce Fe-deficiency anaemia in the studied rats. Provision of the 35 mg Fe/kg diet after feeding an Fe-deficient diet significantly increased the abundance of dominant bacterial groups such as Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium cluster IV members compared with that of an Fe-deficient diet. Fe supplementation increased gut microbial butyrate concentration 6-fold compared with Fe depletion and did not affect histological colitis scores. The present results suggest that Fe supplementation enhances the concentration of beneficial gut microbiota metabolites and thus may contribute to gut health.
To provide nationally representative data on the prevalence of anaemia, vitamin A and Fe deficiencies among pre-school age children (pre-SAC) and non-pregnant women of reproductive age (WRA), and on vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies in WRA, and the influence of inflammation on their interpretation.
A cross-sectional survey to measure anthropometry, malaria parasitaemia and micronutrient status. Specifically, blood samples were analysed for Hb, plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors, C-reactive protein, α1-acid glycoprotein, retinol-binding protein, vitamin B12 and folate.
Côte d'Ivoire in 2007.
Nine hundred and twenty-eight WRA and 879 pre-SAC.
In WRA, prevalence of Plasmodium parasitaemia (5 %) was low, but inflammation (34 %) was higher. Anaemia was a severe public health problem and prevalence differed by residency and eco-region. Inflammation-adjusted Fe deficiency was highest in urban areas (20 %). Nationally, folate deficiency was 86 %, higher in urban areas and varied by eco-region. Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was low but higher in the rural areas and the north. Inflammation-adjusted vitamin A deficiency was very low (1 %). In pre-SAC, prevalence of inflammation (67 %) and Plasmodium parasites (25 %) was high; the latter was associated with poverty, rural residency and higher ferritin concentrations. Anaemia was classified as a severe public health problem (72 %), and was higher in rural areas (76 %) and the north (87 %). A quarter of pre-SAC suffered from vitamin A deficiency (inflammation-adjusted) and prevalence of undernutrition was high.
Prevalence of inflammation, Plasmodium parasitaemia and micronutrient deficiencies were high in Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in pre-SAC. Nutritional interventions should be accompanied by strategies to reduce exposure to infections.
The fast dissolution of certain calcium-containing compounds makes them attractive carriers for trace minerals in nutritional applications, e.g., iron and zinc to alleviate mineral deficiencies in affected people. Here, CaO-based nanostructured mixed oxides containing nutritionally relevant amounts of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn were produced by one-step flame spray pyrolysis. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, x-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Dissolution in dilute acid (i.d.a.) was measured as an indicator of their in vivo bioavailability. High contents of calcium resulted in matrix encapsulation of iron and zinc preventing formation of poorly soluble oxides. For 3.6 ≤ Ca:Fe ≤ 10.8, Ca2Fe2O5 coexisted with CaO. For Ca/Zn compounds, no mixed oxides were obtained, indicating that the Ca/Zn composition can be tuned without affecting their solubility i.d.a. Aging under ambient conditions up to 225 days transformed CaO to CaCO3 without affecting iron solubility i.d.a. Furthermore, Cu and Mn could be readily incorporated in the nanostructured CaO matrix. All such compounds dissolved rapidly and completely i.d.a., suggesting good in vivo bioavailability.
While health warnings are present on cigarette packs around the world, the nature of the warnings varies considerably between countries. In the United States, a small text warning citing the dangers of cigarette smoking is found on the side of all packs. This pilot study sought to determine whether graphic cigarette warning images, like those found in the United Kingdom and Canada, were better at decreasing cravings to smoke than existing text warnings found on cigarette packs in the United States. Twenty-five smokers seeking treatment to quit at a specialty tobacco treatment program were administered the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU — BRIEF), a validated measure of craving, prior to and following exposure to cigarette pack warning images. The graphic cigarette warning images reduced cravings to smoke (6.20 point decrease) more than neutral images (3.36 point decrease) and current text warnings used in the United States (5.75 point decrease), although this difference was not statistically significant. Based on these pilot data, a larger study could further examine the effectiveness of graphic warning images and whether such warnings hold an advantage over the currently used text warnings.
Iron deficiency affects approximately 2 billion people worldwide, especially young women and children. Food fortification with iron is a sustainable approach to alleviate iron deficiency but remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds with high bioavailability (e.g. the “gold standard” FeSO4) usually cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods, while compounds that are less reactive in food matrices are often less bioavailable. Solubility (and therefore bioavailability) can be improved by increasing the specific surface area (SSA) of the compound, i.e. decreasing its particle size to the nm range. Here, iron oxide-based nanostructured compounds with Mg or Ca are made using scalable flame aerosol technology. Addition of either element increased iron solubility to a level comparable to iron phosphate. Furthermore, these additions lightened the powder color and sensory changes in fruit yoghurt were less prominent than for FeSO4.