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This chapter examines how the rise of populist nationalism in Saudi Arabia interacts with Wahhabism and the role of Western power in controlling the outcome of this interaction. As a result of its founding agreement, the Saudi ruling family needs the support of Wahhabi clerks for internal legitimacy and of the West, mainly the US, for technological help and defense and security backing. These Saudi rulers have instrumentalized Wahhabism to advance a pan-Islamic ideology (da?wa) in an effort to fight rivals at home and combat Arab nationalism and liberal, socialist, and Marxist trends in the Arab region and Islamic societies. This ideology was also used to achieve global influence. The chapter explains that Saudi Arabia is a case in which an extreme interpretation of religious doctrine was needed to legitimize an authoritarian regime and ultimately became a tool of domestic governance and foreign policy.
I am thankful to be invited to share some reflections on the genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and on the actions of scholars in Bosnia-Herzegovina and around the world in resisting genocide and in promoting peace, justice, and respect for human dignity in the face of such a tragedy.
Pulsed laser deposition is one of the most flexible growth methods for high-quality epitaxial multifunctional thin films and short-period superlattices. The following examples of current research interest demonstrate the state-of-the art: First, it is shown that the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic BiFeO3–BaTiO3 (001)-oriented superlattices depends on the crystalline coherence of the different layers at the interfaces. Second, it is exemplified that dielectric-plasmonic superlattices built from the electrically insulating oxide MgO and the metallically conducting nitride TiN are promising metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. As a third example, it is demonstrated that LaNiO3- and LaMnO3-based superlattices with (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-out-of-plane orientation and controlled single layer thickness from 2 to 15 atomic monolayers show metal-insulator transitions and tunable gaps, in partial agreement with density functional theory calculations. Underlined by these examples, it is shown that the precise control of an epitaxially coherent, or two-dimensional layer-by-layer growth, named after Jan van der Merwe, is a prerequisite to achieve the desired functionality of oxide–oxide and oxide–nitride superlattices.
One day during his pilgrimage to Mecca and while circling the Kaaba, the Murcian Ibn ʿArabī (d. 1240) recited the following verses:
I wish I knew if they knew
whose heart they’ve taken
Or that my heart knew
which high-ridge track they follow
Do you think they’re safe
or do you think they’re perished
The lords of love are bewildered
in it, ensnared.
Ibn ʿArabī, who went on to become known as the grand master (al-shaykh alakbar) of Sufi thought, recounts that a young woman appeared and objected to each verse in turn, asking how such a famous and respected sheikh could have so badly misunderstood the workings of love. With the final verse, she lost all patience:
Amazing! How could it be that the one pierced through the heart by love had any remainder of self left to be bewildered? Love’s character is to be all consuming. It numbs the senses, drives away intellect, astonishes thoughts, and sends off the one in love with the others who are gone. Where is bewilderment and who is left to be bewildered?
This chapter presents the translation of a poem by Ibn Zaydun, titled Nuniyya. This volume is concerned with the details of typically "mixed" Andalusi forms. In al-Andalus, there is a full range of communities and individuals, and not only Muslims, whose language is Arabic. Alongside Andalusians with unimpeachable "classical" credentials such as Ibn Hazm and Ibn Zaydun and Ibn al-Khatyb, a portrait of complex individuals such as Ramon Llull and Petrus Alfonsi, is presented in their own ways not unlike the horseshoe arches of San Roman. The volume presents widely disparate fields: from the French medievalist whose interest has been aroused by notices of Hispano-Arabic culture having some interaction with Provencal to the specialist in Hebrew poetry who may want to understand the Jewish Golden Age, from graduate students in European medieval studies who will need to understand something of this central culture to the Ottomanist interested in the makeup and history of so many refugees in the sixteenth century.
The Literature of Al-Andalus is an exploration of the culture of Iberia, present-day Spain and Portugal, during the period when it was an Islamic, mostly Arabic-speaking territory, from the eighth to the thirteenth century, and in the centuries following the Christian conquest when Arabic continued to be widely used. The volume embraces many other related spheres of Arabic culture including philosophy, art, architecture and music. It also extends the subject to other literatures - especially Hebrew and Romance literatures - that burgeoned alongside Arabic and created the distinctive hybrid culture of medieval Iberia. Edited by an Arabist, an Hebraist and a Romance scholar, with individual chapters compiled by a team of the world's leading experts of Islamic Iberia, Sicily and related cultures, this is a truly interdisciplinary and comparative work which offers a interesting approach to the field.