Innovation occurs globally in different types of communities. This chapter outlines their unique characteristics. Private innovation communities tend to be profit-driven and include individuals or small groups working together, small localized businesses, and large diversified corporations having many divisions. Public innovation communities have nonfinancial missions. Universities and public research institutions are devoted to innovation, while political parties and religious groups innovate and use intellectual property to lesser extents. Mixed communities include both private and public activity, such as regional innovation communities in various parts of the world, including developing countries, public–private partnerships, multinational research consortia, global innovation initiatives, and ad hoc arrangements such as open innovation communities. Together all these groups may be described as part of a global innovation community.
INNOVATION MADE IN COMMUNITIES
Your computer, cell phone, sneakers, medicines, and book collection are all products of the innovation cycle. In each case, individuals working creatively used available knowledge and resources to come up with a new product, which became popular through wide adoption in society, and become available around the world for others to use.
For an idea to become a full-fledged innovation, something that is widely available in society, it must pass from person to person, either by transfer of intellectual property rights, or by publication or collaboration. Most products include the creative ideas of many people, combined and transferred. As John Donne said, “no man is an island,” and the same is true for an idea.