To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Functional impairment in daily activity is a cornerstone in distinguishing the clinical progression of dementia. Multiple indicators based on neuroimaging and neuropsychological instruments are used to assess the levels of impairment and disease severity; however, it remains unclear how multivariate patterns of predictors uniquely predict the functional ability and how the relative importance of various predictors differs.
In this study, 881 older adults with subjective cognitive complaints, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia with Alzheimer’s type completed brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neuropsychological assessment, and a survey of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). We utilized the partial least square (PLS) method to identify latent components that are predictive of IADL.
The result showed distinct brain components (gray matter density of cerebellar, medial temporal, subcortical, limbic, and default network regions) and cognitive–behavioral components (general cognitive abilities, processing speed, and executive function, episodic memory, and neuropsychiatric symptoms) were predictive of IADL. Subsequent path analysis showed that the effect of brain structural components on IADL was largely mediated by cognitive and behavioral components. When comparing hierarchical regression models, the brain structural measures minimally added the explanatory power of cognitive and behavioral measures on IADL.
Our finding suggests that cerebellar structure and orbitofrontal cortex, alongside with medial temporal lobe, play an important role in the maintenance of functional status in older adults with or without dementia. Moreover, the significance of brain structural volume affects real-life functional activities via disruptions in multiple cognitive and behavioral functions.
The accurate estimation of expected survival in terminal cancer patients is important. The palliative performance scale (PPS) is an important factor in predicting survival of hospice patients. The purpose of this study was to examine how initial status of PPS and changes in PPS affect the survival of hospice patients in Korea.
We retrospectively examined 315 patients who were admitted to our hospice unit between January 2017 and December 2018. The patients were divided based on the PPS of ≥50% (group A) and ≤40% (group B). We performed survival analysis for factors associated with the length of survival (LOS) in group A. Based on the hospice team's weekly evaluation of PPS, we examined the effect of initial levels and changes in group A on the prognosis of patients who survived for 2 weeks or more.
At the time of admission to hospice, 265 (84.1%) patients were PPS ≥50%, and 50 (15.9%) were PPS ≤40%. The median LOS of PPS ≥50% and PPS ≤40% were 15 (2–158 days) and 9 (2–43 days), respectively. Male, gastrointestinal cancer, and lower initial PPS all predicted poor prognosis in group A. Male, gastrointestinal cancer, and a PPS change of 10% or greater, compared with initial status 1 week and 2 weeks of hospitalization, were all predictors of poor prognosis in group A patients who survived for 2 weeks or longer.
Significance of results
Our research demonstrates the significance of PPS change at 1 week and 2 weeks, suggesting the importance of evaluating not only initial PPS but also change in PPS.
The photophysical formation of surface relief grating (SRG) was compared between isocyanate-based polymeric and non-polymeric thin films of low molecular weight organics containing azobenzene group. The non-polymeric film forms faster and more efficient surface grating formation than the polymeric film when exposed to an interference pattern of polarized Ar+ laser beams at 488 nm. However, the polymeric materials exhibited higher stability of SRG and orientation of azobenzenes than non-polymeric ones. The relation between the rate of photoinduced surface modulation and orientation of azobenzenes is discussed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.